UK loses 3 out of 4 European human rights cases? More like 1 in 50, actually

12 January 2012 by

It is rightly said that 95% of statistics are made up. Today’s Daily Mail front page headline contained a typically exuberant statistical claim: Europe’s war on British justice: UK loses three out of four human rights cases, damning report reveals. According to journalist James Slack “Unelected Euro judges” are mounting a “relentless attack on British laws laid down over centuries by Parliament”.

The Telegraph’s Andrew Hough and Tom Whitehead chime in with Britain loses 3 in 4 cases at human rights court. But are they right? To add a bit of spice to this statistical journey, I will aim to use at least one analogy involving a popular TV singing contest.

The “explosive research” is a report by Robert Broadhurst, a Parliamentary legal researcher for a group of Conservative MPs. The headline grabbing figures are in this paragraph:

Between when it first signed up to the Court‘s jurisdiction in 1966 and the end of 2010, the UK faced over 350 rulings from the judges in Strasbourg… In about three-quarters of these judgements the Court ruled that the UK had breached a Convention right.

This is simply misleading. Only counting final judgments of the court obscures the reality of how it operates. In fact, the number of claims which are brought to the court is enormous compared to the amount which reach full hearings. This is because the vast majority are struck out at an early stage, and those strike outs are effectively victories for the UK.

Judges consider the case and decide that it is “manifestly unfounded”; similar to when a domestic court finds that a claim has no reasonable prospects of success. This is a very high bar, which means that the vast majority of claims don’t reach it. Some of these will be not worth the paper they are written on, but many are genuine claims and to ignore them when considering the court statistics is to miss most of what the court does.

Broadhurst’s figures are taken from the European Court of Human Rights’ own document, which reveals that since 1966, out of a total of 443 judgments against the UK, in 271 there was a finding of at least one violation of the European Convention on Human Rights. This is compared to 86 finding no violation.

But this is just the tip of the iceberg. As demonstrated by the rather nice pie diagram in another of the court’s own reports, since 1966 97% of cases against the UK were declared inadmissible, that is they were struck out. This means that in reality, of all the claims brought before the court against the UK (in the region of 15,700, by my calculation), only 3% made it to full hearings, and a – let’s face it miniscule – 1.7% succeeded.

So, not three quarters, as the Mail suggests, but under one in fifty cases brought before the court against the UK were successful. As it happens, the Strasbourg court is good at publishing statistics, but perhaps could have been clearer with these, for example by including the total number of claims brought in its Violations by State table.

But in any case there is no excuse for a significant report – signed and prefaced by 10 MPs – making such a hash of its statistics (and I haven’t even mentioned the Mail’s “unelected” judges, who are actually elected).

Presenting the figures in this way is a bit like watching X-Factor from the live finals, which begin with 12 contestants, and extrapolating that since one of them wins in the end, therefore almost 10% of X-Factor applicants ultimately win the contest. In reality tens of thousands apply, so only a tiny percentage of them “win”, but most are “struck out” as being bad singers in the months before the finals.

The high proportion of finally decided cases which are successful is interesting, but it hardly represents a court which is mounting a “relentless attack” on the British laws. Indeed, there are so few fully heard cases that any statistical analysis is fairly meaningless anyway.

In fact, what the statistics do reveal is that the European Court hears a tiny amount of cases against the UK each year; just under 30. The success rate for the lucky few Claimants is quite high, but it is about the same the success rate across all states, and is probably is more a reflection of the high “manifestly unfounded” bar the court sets for Claimants than any “relentless attack” on British justice. In other words, only good cases get through, so a lot of those ultimately win.

So, legal researcher Robert Broadhurst can pop up on to the legal naughty step for disservices to statistics, and the Daily Mail and Telegraph journalists can join him for their gleefully unquestioning acceptance of his statistical sleight of hand.

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17 comments


  1. 14bis was brought in to deal with the avalanche of new claims from places like Poland. The “Supreme” Court was established as the UK was losing so many cases. But don’t worry, 4 years on and S & Marper hasn’t even been implemented!

  2. lawuntomyself says:

    Have I missed the point here, even taking on board a very dodgy way of interpreting statistics by a non neutral legal advisor with a clear axe to grind and pocket to line…This is 350 rulings over 45 years or so years? Far less than ten rulings a year? Hardly a “relentless attack on British laws laid down over centuries by Parliament”. Oh I and loved the X factor analogy…..Spot on…!!

  3. John D says:

    I believe it was a former Conservative Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, who opined that there were ‘Lies, damned lies….and statistics.’ His latter day party colleagues would do well to remember their former leader’s wise words and to avoid rags like the Daily Mail with unsubstantiated lies, damned lies and statistics. I note the “report” has been produced by a self-styled “European Research Group” which, I assume, is trying to ape the kind of antics right wing piliticians in the USA get up to – all very unBritish. I do not argue with the contention that the ECHR and Court should be improved but what is the mechanism for doing so? This is something the “European Research Group” should be examining instead of inventing spurious “statistics”.

  4. Joe Barrett says:

    Adam/Tom,

    The inadmissibility criterion is whether the claim is manifestly ill-founded i.e. is there an arguable, or possibly seriously arguable, case. That is, inherently, not a high threshold.

    Tom is right to say that occasionally a case’s factual complexity, procedural history or, very rarely, the number/difficulty of the legal issues raised results in a relatively substantial inadmissibility judgment. If the ECtHR has fully analysed the substance of the claim and produced a full judgment before concluding that it is inadmissible then I would agree that these should be included within the relevant sample for discussion (examples which spring to mind are Friend v UK or OBG Ltd v UK).

    However, this doesn’t really move the debate much further forward – these are still cases where the Strasbourg Court itself has determined that the claim is so fundamentally flawed as not to merit substantive examination.

    Further, some very, very weak claims surmount the admissibility threshold e.g. the Article 10 challenge in regard to the publication of the Naomi Campbell photographs in MGN v UK, the A2P1 challenge in Ali v UK. It is difficult to contend, either by reference to the ECtHR’s own case-law or recent decided cases, that admissibility is a particularly high bar.

    We should be able to agree that in assessing the merits or demerits of the ECtHR what is likely to be instructive is what happens in those cases where there is some issue of substance or difficulty to be addressed. It seems a little disingenuous to suggest that the fact that many completely hopeless claims, unsurprisingly, do not go anywhere tells us anything useful at all about the institution or its practice.

    In any event, I am not convinced that internet postings are conducive to a sustained discussion so let’s reconvene at a future ALBA event over a beer or glass of wine.

    1. Adam Wagner says:

      It’s a deal! Have a good weekend

  5. Tom Cleaver says:

    Joe – it’s very problematic to split cases into “inadmissible cases” and “decided cases”. Often a case is deemed inadmissible on the basis of a very considered decision. As an example, the admissibility decision App 71916/01 Maltzan v Germany was taken by the Grand Chamber (17 judges) and is 38 pages long.

    Often, too, the inadmissibility will follow explicitly from a conclusion that the state has not overstepped its margin of appreciation; see the last paragraph of App 71074/01 Mentzen v Latvia (a 30-pager).

    It’s difficult to maintain that decisions like that have no bearing on a proper analysis of how willing the Court is to interfere.

  6. adrian says:

    Pleasure be assured that such attitudes can easily be found amongst certain groups of politicians and their allies (who do not deserve to be qualified as journalist) allover Europe.

  7. Adam Wagner says:

    Joe – thanks for the comment. As I said in the post, I agree that it is important to analyse the number of decided cases in which the court reaches a final judgment. But is it fair to do so with absolutely no consideration of the thousands of cases which don’t make it to a final judgment?

    You are right to say that if I or you decided to lodge 50 hopeless cases tomorrow, they would be recorded and form part of the rejected claims statistics. But who is to say what proportion of those struck out claims are entirely spurious, written on the back of an envelope or whatever? The point is that the report and the articles surrounding it don’t engage with that question at all.

    It may be that upon proper analysis, it turned out that the court’s “manifestly unfounded” bar was extremely high, making it likely that cases which get through it are going to be successful. It might be that the bar is actually quite low, in which case the question of why so many cases (and I’m not sure it is 3/4, by my maths around it is closer 60%) succeed is a troubling one.

    But, none of these questions can be answered without a much more careful consideration of the figures, and I don’t think the report provides that, and this is why it was easy for the Mail and Telegraph to pick up on the headline figures as they did.

  8. Joe Barrett says:

    Adam,

    You appear to be arguing that because there are lots of completely hopeless claims lodged with the Strasbourg Court – where a claimant hasn’t suffered any detriment at all, or where no arguable human rights issue arises – this somehow provides justification, explanation or excuse for the strikingly high proportion of decided cases in which the ECtHR seeks to substitute its policy preference for that of our domestic Courts, Parliament or Government.

    The argument you make simply doesn’t bear scrutiny. For example, if you and I tomorrow decide to lodge 50, completely spurious, claims with the ECtHR these would be recorded and form part of the statistics relating to claims which the Court has ‘rejected’. This doesn’t tell us anything at all about how intrusive, or not, the Strasbourg Court is relative to our own democracy.

    Any debate about the relationship between the ECtHR and our domestic institutions can only sensibly be conducted by focussing on the treatment of those cases in which some arguable issue of human rights arises i.e. those cases which are not declared manifestly ill-founded and so progress to a final judgment.

    In all fairness, it would seem to me that the author of the report (whom I do not know and have never met) is amply justified in focussing attention on this statistic and your charge that he has ‘misrepresented’ ‘the figures’ seems misguided and unfounded.

  9. A good analysis of a flawed report. I intend to write a response trashing the report even further.

  10. Kate says:

    Robert – well, you can count me as one person who believes prisoners should be able to vote, and I know many other people who agree. Maybe you’re just hanging out in the wrong circles?

    It is misleading to say that the ECtHR is ‘incompatible with our democracy’ and Strasbourg is unaccountable. An elected British government signed the European Convention, and indeed was one of the driving forces behind it. An elected British government chose to allow individual petition to the European Court. An elected British parliament passed the Human Rights Act, which in fact allows a number of safeguards (far more than in other jurisdictions) for ensuring that Strasbourg judgments cannot automatically override legislation. The judges are elected by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, on which the UK is represented by 18 British parliamentarians (most of them elected; there are some House of Lords members in there too).

    It is not the ECtHR that is ‘ruining the reputation of human rights’ – it is conservative media organs like the Daily Mail and a group of conservative (including some ‘big c’ Conservatives, yes) politicians who are doing this, through misleading and inaccurate information (including by commissioning biased reports like this).

  11. Robert Broadhurst says:

    As the impugned author, I would like to respond to this.

    As Mr Wagner appears grudgingly to accept, the statements made in my report are correct. Quite simply, the focus of that paragraph was on the actual judgements of the ECtHR regarding alleged violations of Convention rights because it is these that can impact on the British legal system, under the UK’s ECHR obligation to abide by final judgements of the Court directed at this country.

    Those who read the report will see that its main focus (when it comes to the ECHR) is on the qualitative effect of the Strasbourg Court’s jurisprudence on this country. For example, as we are all aware, that Court has currently demanded that the UK give at least some convicted prisoners the vote. As the MPs who wrote the foreword to the report say, who really believes that convicted prisoners have an inherent right to vote while they are behind bars for their crime? I can’t find many people. And yet we must suspend our disbelief and change a provision of primary legislation that is supported by the great majority of MPs so as to bow to the wishes of Strasbourg (which, of course, is not accountable to the British people). This is incompatible with our democracy and is ruining the reputation of human rights, along with other judgements.

    I would advise people to read the report themselves (at http://www.makinghumanrightswork.org.uk) before coming to their own view on it.

    I should point out that I do not plan to get drawn into a protracted exchange on this website as I simply do not have the time.

    1. Adam Wagner says:

      Robert – thanks for the reply. I agree that the issues you raise in the report are important, but don’t you agree that by ignoring the vast majority of cases which get struck out as inadmissible is misrepresenting the figures?

    2. Firstly, I would like to thank Adam for bringing this dodgy report to my attention. Alarm bells ring when it is reported in the Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph, rather than in serious newspapers. Adam restricted his criticisms to the dodgy statistics. I have read the report and conclude that it is as dishonest as the Dodgy Dossier relating to WMD.

      The title “Human rights: Making them work for the people of the UK” sounds good. But, you don’t judge a book by its cover. The Foreword is written by “The Dirty Ten MPs”. It begins “We are proud of the United Kingdom‘s record of supporting human rights, both at home and abroad”. However, Vera Baird QC, MP, Solicitor General paints a different picture on 12 November 2008: “Our legal system has been unable to protect people in the 50 cases in which the European Court has found a violation of the convention by the United Kingdom. That is more than any other country except Italy.” http://www.attorneygeneral.gov.uk/NewsCentre/Speeches /Pages/EuropeanLawHumanRights.aspx To be proud of a good human rights record is laudable, to be proud of a bad one has to be something only praiseworthy in a dictatorship.

      “The Dirty Ten MPs” continue “Fundamental rights are precious and must be constantly defended”. I agree. The ECHR contains fundamental rights. They are precious to those victims of human rights abuse, for example, convicted prisoners denied their human right to vote. The Council of Europe refers to Human Rights Defenders. I am proud to be a Human Rights Defender. I am only too aware, living in Britain, that human rights must be constantly defended. So, why are “The Dirty Ten MPs” attacking fundamental human rights?

      “The Dirty Ten MPs” continue “As elected representatives we take that responsibility very seriously”. The evidence does not support that statement. Parliament has abdicated responsibility in relation to Hirst v UK (No2).

      “The Dirty Ten MPs” continue “However, it is obvious that something has gone badly wrong. When we are ordered by the European Court of Human Rights, against our firmly held beliefs and those of our constituents, to scrap a provision of an Act of Parliament that stops convicted prisoners from voting, it is time to reflect on how human rights are being applied”.

      It is not obvious at all that something has gone badly wrong. Certainly not with the ECtHR or its judgments.What is obvious is that Parliament abdicating responsibility is wrong in the extreme. The ECtHR issued such an order because it was found that the UK was guilty of a human rights violation. The UK’s firmly held beliefs were argued before the Court and found to be wanting. The beliefs of “The Dirty Ten MPs” constituents are totally irrelevant, because Hirst v UK (No2) was a case of the Individual v the State. The UK had tried to shield behind public opinion, but as Judge Caflisch observes “the decisions taken by this Court are not made
      to please or indispose members of the public, but to uphold human rights
      principles”. Therefore, it is cowardly for “The Dirty Ten MPs” to continue to hide behind the public once the Court has dismissed the argument and pointed out their irrelevance to human rights.

      The report’s author states: “In sum, the main problem the United Kingdom faces when it comes to human rights based on the ECHR, both internationally and at home, is one of judicial interpretations of human rights that offend the common understanding of those rights, but which the country is forced to accept. This appears to be a result of both judicial activism and the inherently ambiguous nature of human rights, combined with the UK‟s obligations under the ECHR”.

      I don’t see a problem with judicial interpretation by the ECtHR of the human rights under the ECHR. I do see a problem with the concept of a common understanding of those rights, I don’t believe there is such a thing as a common understanding in this specialised area of knowledge. There is no evidence that the public are offended. There is evidence of certain MPs and media claiming that the public are offended. We already know that the ECtHR does not care whether public opinion is offended. The report’s author fails to include that under Labour’s consultation exercise 47% favoured all convicted prisoners getting the vote, whereas only 4 people not 4% supported the Government’s limited franchise option.

      The report’s author states: “To ensure the Strasbourg Court did not impose on the British people interpretations of human rights that offended their common understanding of those rights, the democratically accountable UK Parliament should be given the power to overturn such ECtHR judgements directed at the UK”.

      As stated an application to the ECtHR involves the Individual and the State not the public. When it comes to human rights, democracy and the rule of law the ECtHR has found the UK to be a failing State. It has identified systemic failures between the Executive, Parliament and Judiciary. Democracy would be a fine thing. A Parliament which cannot act responsibily in fully complying with a ECtHR judgment or abiding by the ECHR, needs its powers curbing and not extending so it can be judge, jury and executioner.

      In sum 2/10 could do very much better!

    3. Ganesh Sittampalamh says:

      I think criminals should always have the right to vote. Removing it gives an incentive to the government to criminalise people it doesn’t want to vote.

    4. “As the MPs who wrote the foreword to the report say, who really believes that convicted prisoners have an inherent right to vote while they are behind bars for their crime? I can’t find many people. And yet we must suspend our disbelief and change a provision of primary legislation that is supported by the great majority of MPs so as to bow to the wishes of Strasbourg (which, of course, is not accountable to the British people). This is incompatible with our democracy and is ruining the reputation of human rights, along with other judgements.”

      Yes? I have no problem with this. Just because a lot of people think something dies not make it right -. Democracy is grossly overrated. (formal fallacy: argumentum ad populum.)

      The fact that Strasbourg sometimes ignores what the self-righteous lynch-mob bandwagon barks actually enhances the reputation of human rights rather than ruins it.

  12. Frank Cranmer says:

    No surprise there, then. “Research” carried out for politicians tends to have about the same relationship to objective academic research as Lord Scarman did to break-dancing.

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humanitarian law international human rights international human rights law International Labour Organisation international law International Stem Cell Corporation international treaty obligations internet internet libel internet service providers internment internship interrogation intrusion inuit invasive species invention investigation investigative duty in vitro fertilisation Iran iranian bank sanctions Iranian nuclear program iran sanctions Iraq Iraqi asylum seeker Iraq War Ireland Irish Constitution irrationality ISC ISIL islam isolated nucleic acids isolation Israel israeli palestinian conflict italian ships Italy iTunes IVF ivory ban Jack Dorsey jackson reforms Janowiec and Others v Russia ( Japan japanese knotweed Jason Smith jean charles de menezes Jeet Singh Jefferies jehovah's witnesses Jeremy Clarkson Jeremy Corbyn jeremy hunt jihad Jihadi brides jihadists JIH identity jim duffy job jobseekers' allowance Jogee John Hemming John Terry joint enterprise joint tenancy jonathan sumption Jon Guant Joseph v Spiller journalism judaism judges Judges and Juries judging judgment judgment in default Judicial activism judicial brevity judicial deference Judicial immunity judicial no-mans land judicial oversight judicial power judicial review Judicial Review reform Judicial Studies Board judiciary Julian Assange Julian Asssange Juncker jurisdiction jury trial JUSTICE Justice and Security Act Justice and Security Bill Justice and Security Green Paper Justice Cameron Justice Human Rights Awards JUSTICE Human Rights Awards 2010 justiciability justification just satisfaction Kant Katyn Massacre Kay v Lambeth Kay v UK kazakstan Ken Clarke Ken Pease Kerry McCarthy Kettling Khan v Advocate General for Scotland khordokovsky Kings College Kiobel Klimas koran burning laboratory animals laboratory test Labour labour law lack of reasons Lady Hale land landfill gas landowner landowners language lansley NHS reforms LASPO Law Commission Law Pod UK Law Society Law Society of Scotland leave to enter leave to remain Lee Rigby legal advice privilege legal aid legal aid cuts Legal Aid desert Legal Aid Reforms legal blogs Legal Certainty legality legal naughty step Legal Ombudsman legal privilege legal profession legal professional privilege legal representation legitimate expectation let as a dwelling Leveson Inquiry Levi Bellfield lewisham hospital closure Lewis Malcolm Calver liability Libel libel reform Liberal Democrat Conference Liberal Democrats liberal humanism Liberty libraries closure library closures licence conditions licence to shoot licensee life insurance life orders life sentence life support limestone pavements limitation lisbon treaty Lithuania litigant in person litvinenko live exports livestock livestock trade living instrument living will LME local authorities local government locked in syndrome locus standi london borough of merton London Legal Walk London Probation Trust Lord Bingham Lord Bingham of Cornhill Lord Blair Lord Carey Lord Goldsmith lord irvine Lord Judge Lord Judge speech Lord Justice Jackson Lord Kerr Lord Lester Lord Mance Lord Neuberger Lord Phillips Lord Rodger Lord Sales Lord Saville Report Lord Sumption Lord Taylor LSC tender luftur rahman MAGA Magna Carta Magna Carter Mail Online mail on sunday Majority Verdict Malcolm Kennedy male circumcision malice malicious falsehood mandela M and Others v Her Majesty’s Treasury manifestation of belief manifestos Margaret Thatcher Margin of Appreciation margin of discretion Maria Gallastegui Marie Colvin marine conservation marine environmental law marine sanctuaries Mark Kennedy mark twain marriage marriage act 1949 material support maternity pay Matthew Woods Mattu v The University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust [2011] EWHC 2068 (QB) Maya the Cat Mba v London Borough Of Merton Mcfarlane McKenzie friend me/cfs research Media and Censorship media judge Medical medical confidentiality medical ethics medical evidence medical liability medical negligence medical profession medical qualifications medical records medical treatment medicine mental capacity mental capacity; press; reporting restrictions Mental Capacity Act Mental Capacity Act 2005 Mental Health mental health act mental health advocacy mental health awareness Mental Health Courts mental health hospital Mental illness merits review mesothelioma metgate MGN v UK michael gove Middle Temple Midwives Milly Dowler minimally conscious minimum income minimum sentence Ministerial Code Ministry of Justice Ministry of Justice cuts miscarriage of justice misfeasance in public office missiles misuse of private information mitochondrial disease MMR MMR vaccination modern slavery Mohamed monitoring powers monsanto montgomery mooring moral circle morality morocco mortgage fraud mortuaries motherhood motor neuron disease Motor Neurone disease Moulton Mousa movement for democratic change MP expenses Mr Brewer Mr Gul Mr Justice Eady Mr Justice Sharp MS (Palestinian Territories) (FC) (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Munchausen Munchausen by proxy murder murder reform music Musician's Union Muslim mustafa kamal mutation mutations myanmar MY Cannis my kingdom for a horse Myriad NADA v. SWITZERLAND - 10593/08 - HEJUD [2012] ECHR 1691 Nadja Benaissa naked rambler Naomi Campbell narcolepsy National Health Act nationality National Origin National Pro Bono Week national security national sovereignty Natural England natural rights nature nature conservation naturism Nazi neanderthals necessary implication need for legal aid needs assessment negligence neighbour dispute Neuberger neural degeneration neurogenerative disease neuroscience Newcastle university news News of the World news roundup new Supreme Court President NGO standing NHS NHS Risk Register NICE Nick Clegg Nicklinson Niqaab niqab No Angels Noise Regulations 2005 non-justiciability nonhuman animals non voluntary euthanasia Northern Ireland Northern Irish Assembly notification requirements nuclear challenges nuisance nurse nursing nursing home obiter dicta Occupy London offensive jokes Offensive Speech offensive t shirt official solicitor of Rights Commission oil and gas oil spill olympics open justice oppress oppressive treatment OPQ v BJM orchestra orthodox schools Osama Bin Laden Osborn v The Parole Board [2013] UKSC 61 ouster clause overseas aid Oxford University Palestinian Territories palliative care palliative sedation paramount consideration paramountcy principle parental responsibility order parental rights parenthood parents responsibility parking spaces parliament parliamentary expenses parliamentary expenses scandal Parliamentary sovereignty Parliament square parole parole board party funding passengers rights passing off passive smoking passport passport seizure pastor Terry Jones patent patents paternity Pathway Students patiets' rights Patrick Quinn murder Paul Chambers PCOs peace-keeping operations Pensions people for the ethical treatment of animals (Peta) performers' rights permanent injunction persecution persistent vegetative state personal data personal information Personal Injury personality rights Personal life perversity Pet Animals Act 1951 Peter and Hazelmary Bull Peter Gibson pet shops PF and EF v UK Philip Lawrence Phil Woolas phone hacking phone taps photos photovoltaics physical and mental disabilities physical restraint physician assisted death Pinnock Piracy PJS placement order planning planning human rights planning system planning time limits plantagenet plebgate pleural plaques POCA podcast points poison Poland Police police investigations police liability police misconduct police powers police surveillance policing Policy Exchange report political advertising political judges political persecution politicians for hire Politics Politics/Public Order pollution polonium poor reporting Pope Pope's visit Pope Benedict porsche 917 portal possession order possession proceedings post mortem Posts power of attorney PoW letters to ministers pre-nup pre-nuptial Pre-trial detention predator control pregnancy preliminary reference prerogative powers press Press Association press briefing press freedom Priest priests primary legislation Prince Andrew Prince Charles prince of wales princess caroline of monaco principle of subsidiarity prior restraint prison Prisoners prisoners rights prisoners voting prisoner vote prisoner votes prisoner voting prison numbers prison rules Prisons prison vote privacy privacy injunction privacy law through the front door private disputes Private life private nuisance private use procedural unfairness Procedure proceeds of crime Professional Discipline professional indemnity Professional life Property property rights proportionality prosecution Protection of Freedoms Act Protection of Freedoms Bill protective costs Protest protest camp protest rights Protocol 15 psychiatric hospitals psychology psychotherapy Public/Private public access publication public authorities public authority public bodies Public Bodies Bill public figure public funding public inquiries public inquiry public interest public interest environmental litigation public interest immunity public interest litigation publicity public law unfairness Public Order public powers public procurement Public Sector Equality Duty Public Services Ombudsman Putin putting the past behind quango quantum quarantine Queen's Speech queer in the 21st century R (on the application of) v Joint Committee of Primary Care Trusts & Anor [2012] EWCA Civ 472 R (on the application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Ors [2011] EWCA Civ 895 R (on the application of) v The General Medical Council [2013] EWHC 2839 (Admin) R (on the application of EH) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWHC 2569 (Admin) R (on the application of G) v The Governors of X School Rabone Rabone and another v Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust [2012] UKSC 2 Race race relations Rachel Corrie racial discrimination Racial equality radio radiotherapy Radmacher Raed Salah Mahajna Raed Saleh Ramsgate randomised controlled trial rape rape case raptors Ratcliffe 6 Ratcliffe on Soar Ratcliffe power station rating rationality rcs RCW v A Local Authority reasonableness reasons reasons challenges recent case law and news Recent posts reception conditions recognition of judgments recreational rights Redfearn v UK referendum reform refugee applications refugee crisis refugee status refusal of treatment Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages registration regulatory rehabilitation of offenders Reith Lectures Re J (A Child: Disclosure) [2012] EWCA Civ 1204 relgious freedom Religion religion in the courts religious beliefs religious discrimination religious freedom religious prosecution remedies renewables subsidies rent repeal reporting restrictions representation reproductive rights reproductive technologies reproductive wrongs rescue rescuer's claim resettlement of offenders resource allocation respect for family life responsibility in tort restrictions on exports restrictions on liberty results 2010 resuscitation retrospective application of the Human Rights Act retrospective legislation retrospective penalty retrospectivity rev paul nicholson reynolds Reynolds defence Re [2012] EWCA Civ 1233 richard III Richard O'Dwyer right of appeal rightsifno RightsInfo rights of children Right to a fair hearing right to a fair trial right to a home right to a remedy right to artistic expression right to a student loan right to autonomy right to autonomy and privacy right to die right to dies right to die with dignity right to dignity right to education right to expression right to family life right to food right to free enjoyment of possessions right to information right to liberty right to life right to peaceful enjoyment of property Right to Privacy right to private and family life right to refuse treatment right to respect for private life right to silence right to strike right to swim right to truth right to vote Rihanna Rio Ferdinand riots ripa rise of fascism risk risk assessment rival supermarkets Roma Roman Catholic Roman Catholic Church roman catholic schools Romania Rooney's Gold roundup roundup ready Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust royal dutch petroleum royal name Royal Oper House Royal Prerogative rule of law Rupert Jackson Rusal Russia russia and human rights Russian Federal Security Service Rutherford Ryanair s sadie frost Safari same-sex same sex parents same sex partnerships same sex relationship sanctions set aside sanctity of life Sandiford Sapiens Sarah Ferguson sark satire saudi arabia Savage (Respondent) v South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust Saville Report schedule 7 schizophrenia school building school surveillance schrems science scientific atheism scientific research scientology Scoppola Scotland Scotland Act Scotland Act 1998 Scotland Bill Scottish Government Scottish Human Rights Commission scottish landlord and tenant Scottish Parliament SCOTUS sea fishing seals Seal v UK search engines search powers secondary legislation secondary smoking secrecy Secretary of State Secretary of State for the Home Department v AP secret courts secret criminal trial secret evidence secret justice Secret trials sectarianism secularism security security cameras security services security vetting Sedar Mohammed segregation Select Committee on AI self-defence self-incrimination seminar sentencing September 11 serco serious harm sermon Seroxat service outside jurisdiction set-off Sewel Convention sex abuse sex ban sex ban low IQ sex offender Sex offenders sex register sexual abuse Sexual Offences sexual orientation sexual orientation regulations SFO investigation sfo unlawfulness shaker aamer Shamima Begum sham marriage shared residence order Sharon Shoesmith shetland shipping shipwreck Shirley Chaplin shooting shoulder shrug should trees have rights SIAC sihkism Simon Singh sir alan ward Sir Nicholas Wall Sir Peter six months rule slander slaughterhouses slavery smacking small claims court small solar Smith Smith & Ors v The Ministry of Defence [2012] EWCA Civ 1365 smog smoking ban Snyder v Phelps social and economic rights social benefits social housing socialite social media social security law social welfare social workers Solicitorsfromhell website solitary confinement soma somali pirates sources South Africa south african constitution sovereignty Sovereignty clause soviet union soybean Spanish properties spare room subsidy special advocate special advocates species specific performance spending cuts spielmann squatters Standing standing rules starvation state immunity statelessness statute statutory power Statutory purpose stay of execution stem cell research stem cells stem cell therapy Stephen Gough stephen sedley stepping hill hospital Sterilisation steve macqueen Steven Neary stobart-law stop and search stop powers Stormont Assembly storms Strasborug Strasbourg Strasbourg Court strasbourg damages pirates strasbourg law Strasbourg terminology strategic environmental assessment strike strike out Strikes student loans sturgeon subsidies Sugar v BBC suicide suicide act 1961 super injunction super injunctions supermax prisons superstition Supreme Court Supreme Court Live Supreme Court of Canada Supreme Court Scotland surgery surrogacy surrogacy arrangement surveillance swine flu Syria systemic violence Take That tallinn tariff Taser Tax tax avoidance tax discrimination tchenguiz technology Telegraph telephone preference service television justice tenancy tent city termination termination of pregnancy terror asset freezing Terrorism terrorism act terrorism act 2000 terrorism legislation terrorism prosecution terrorist finance terrorist threat terry pratchett Tesla testamentary dispositions The Bike Project the Catholic church The Corner House theism The Law in These Parts therapy Theresa May the right to privacy The Stig The Sun third countries third party appeals three way case time limits time limits in human rights Tobacco tobacco cartels Top Gear tort Torture torture inquiry totally without merit TPIM TPP tracking trade trade secrets trades unions trade union congress Trade Unions transexual transsexual transsexuals travel travellers travel restrictions treason treatment treaty treaty accession trial by jury trolling TTIP TTM v London Borough of Hackney & Ors Tugendhat tumour Turkey tweeting in court Twitter twitter in court Twitter Joke Trial UK UK citizenship uk constitution UK election UK Human Rights Blog UK Human Rights Roundup UKIP UK Jewish Film Festival ukraine UK Supreme Court UK Uncut ultra orthodox jews ultra vires UN unable to vote unacceptable behaviour policy unaccompanied minors unborn child UN Convention on the Rights of the Child unelected judges unemployment unfair consultation unfair dismissal unfairness at hearing Unison Unite United Against Fascism Group United Kingdom United Nations United States United States v Windsor universal declaration of human rights universal jurisdiction Universal Periodic Review University University Fees university of east anglia University of Southampton unjust and oppressive unlawful arrest unlawful detention unpaid work schemes UN Resolution unsolicited calls UPR US aviation US Constitution use as of right US Supreme Court vaccination Valkyries variants veganism vehicle breakdown vetting and barring vicarious liability victim victim status Victoria Climbie victorian charter Vienna airport vigilantism villagisation vinton cerf violence violist visa scheme vivisection voluntary euthanasia Volunteers voter compensation voters compensation voting voting compensation vulnerable Wagner Wakefield Wales War war correspondents ward of court War Horse water utilities Watts Wayne Rooney Websites welfare of child welfare of children welfare of the child welfare state welsh bill western sahara whaling What would happen if the UK withdrew from the European Court of Human Rights whimbrel whisky Whistleblowing WHO who is JIH whole gene sequencing whole life orders whorship Wikileaked cable Wikileaks wiklleaks Wild Law wildlife Wildlife and Countryside Act will William Hague William Marbury wills wind farms wind turbine Winterbourne View witchcraft withdrawal of treatment wolves women's rights Woolas worboys Workers working time directive wrongful birth wrongful conception wrongful life WTO wuhan X AND OTHERS v. AUSTRIA - 19010/07 - HEJUD [2013] ECHR 148 X Factor XX v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWCA Civ 742 X Y and Z v UK Yemshaw Yildirim v Turkey Your freedom website YouTube yukos Yuval Noah Hariri Zakir Naik Zanu-PF Zero Hours Contracts ZH (Tanzania) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Zimbabwe Zimbabwe farm invasions ZN (Afghanistan) (FC) and others ZZ [2015] CSIH 29 [2015] CSOH 168 £750

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