Analysis – Camden Council must disclose list of empty properties to squatting campaigner

15 September 2011 by

Voyias v Information Commissioner and the London Borough of Camden EA/2011/0007 – Read Judgment

The First Tier Tribunal has overturned a decision of the Information Commissioner and ordered Camden Council to provide information about empty properties in the borough to a former member of the Advisory Service for Squatters.

When one thinks of the term “human rights”, the first example that springs to mind is likely to be the right to life, or the right not to be tortured or enslaved – fundamental guarantees that protect the basic dignity of our human condition. Yet human rights are also intended to serve the core goal of preserving and enhancing the strength and rigour of democratic and pluralistic societies, and so the European Convention of Human Rights (EHCR) also contains provisions guarding against discrimination, and protecting freedom of religion and expression.

There is no explicit right of access to information in the ECHR, and as was noted in a previous post, both the European Court of Human Rights and domestic courts have been clear that, as yet, such a right is not within the interpretive scope of the right to freedom of expression set out in Article 10 (see paragraph 36 of the decision in R v Bow County Court, ex p Pelling [2001] 1 UKHRR 165).

Yet arguably such a right is an important precursor to the effective and meaningful expression which Convention jurisprudence prizes most highly, and indeed as far back as 1946 the General Assembly of the United Nations passed a resolution in which it held that “Freedom of information is a fundamental human right and is the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated”. Enter section 1 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA), which created a general right of access to information in England and Wales some 50 years later.

Whilst the large number of exemptions to the basic duty to disclose listed in Part II of the Act has led some commentators to lament the death of the right by a thousand cuts, it was nonetheless successfully relied upon by Mr. Yiannis Voyias in this case.

In August 2009 Mr. Voyias wrote to Camden Council asking for:

..the address of every void [i.e. empty] property in the LB Camden, in which a non individual is listed as either being the owner or as having a material interest in the property.

This request was initially refused by the Council, which relied upon the exemption set out in section 43(2) of the FOIA, providing that information need not be released when its disclosure would, or would be likely to, prejudice the commercial interests of any person. This was an error, however, since Mr. Voyias sought information relating to residential rather than commercial properties. Therefore when Mr. Voyias challenged the Council’s decision before the Information Commissioner, the Council changed its position and relied upon section 31(1)(a), which provides for the withholding of information on the basis that its disclosure would, or would be likely to, prejudice the prevention or detection of crime – in this context, that meant crimes that might be linked to squatting, such as damage to property and drug use.

In a decision handed down in December 2010, the Information Commissioner agreed that section 31(1)(a) was engaged and therefore the information was exempt from the general duty to disclose. However, as this was a qualified exemption, he then had to consider whether the public interest in disclosure outweighed the interest in maintaining the exemption and withholding the information. He found that it did not, and that the Council had not been in breach of section 1 of the FOIA.

Mr. Voyias then appealed to the First Tier Tribunal, which under section 58 of the FOIA effectively takes place as a complete re-hearing of the matter. By that time the Council had released further statistical information about the number of void properties broken down by ward. However, it refused to provide Council records of the addresses of empty Council-managed properties, and records of properties owned by non-individuals which had been confirmed as empty by the Council. That information remained in dispute, and was the subject of the Tribunal’s consideration.

Having addressed a number of preliminary points about the scope and meaning of the request, the Tribunal then asked itself the questions which the Information Commissioner had determined: whether the release of the information would, or would be likely to, prejudice the prevention/detection of crime thus engaging section 31(1)(a), and if so, whether the public interest in disclosure outweighed the interest in withholding the information.

Link between squatting and crime

The first issue involved an assessment of the link between squatting and crime. This is the most interesting part of the judgment, in which the court made reference to a number of official reports on e.g. “crack houses”, Tribunal findings in other similar cases, and witness evidence of the police, council workers and Mr. Voyias himself. In doing so, the Tribunal noted that squatting in itself is currently perfectly legal under English law, and probed what might be considered the intuitive feeling that there is something wrong with it.

The Tribunal accepted that the release of the information would facilitate squatting insofar as it would be likely to increase the number of properties inhabited by squatters (although perhaps not impacting on the overall number of squatters themselves). However, this was not enough to engage section 31(1)(a), since, as noted, squatting is legal. It therefore needed to examine other forms of illegal activity could be linked to this legal act.

The contention that the release of the information would lead to an increase in serious crime such as arson, vandalism, violence and drug use was rejected. This was based upon a distinction which the Tribunal adopted between “opportunistic” squatting and “organized” squatting. It was argued by Mr. Voyias that opportunistic squatters were likely to have substance abuse problems and would not have the “energy, patience, resources or soundness of mind to use the list”. The Tribunal accepted on the basis of the evidence it had seen that serious crimes such as vandalism, arson and drug use were attendant upon opportunistic squatters, and that such squatters would not be likely to make use of the released information, due to their “chaotic behaviour and impulsivity”.

However, it did accept that the release of the information would be likely to lead to an increase in the incidence of criminal damage, as organized squatters sought access to properties and then sought to secure them by e.g. breaking and changing locks. It also accepted that disclosure was likely to facilitate the acquisitive crimes involved in “stripping”, in which empty properties were targeted by organized groups seeking materials to strip and sell. On these bases it accepted that the release of the information would be likely to prejudice the prevention or detection of crime, and therefore section 31(1)(a) of the FOIA was engaged.

The Tribunal;s findings as to the type of crimes which could properly be linked to the legal act of squatting in the circumstances of the case was crucial to the next stage of its inquiry: whether the public interest in disclosure outweighed the interest in withholding the information. Whilst the Tribunal acknowledged that any crimes associated with squatting could undermine the neighbours’ sense of security, and that such crimes would incur costs in their prevention and detection, it determined that the nature of these crimes (i.e. criminal damage and stripping crimes) were at the “lower end of victim impact and that in some cases the presence of organized squatters itself will prevent the use of the premises for more socially disruptive crime”.

Bringing empty properties back into use

In favour of disclosure, the Tribunal accepted that the release of the information would bring a proportion of empty properties back in to use quicker than would otherwise be the case. In addition it considered that the release of the information would rejuvenate and bring focus to the debate on the presence of empty properties in the community:

The Tribunal is satisfied that there is already a lively and informed debate in this area, but, recognises that specific examples provide colour and are important in increasing public understanding and local involvement. It puts the specific empty properties into the limelight, may be an added tool to incentivize owners to reuse their properties and would enable the general public to walk up to a ‘void’, and see for themselves what is going on, whether it is being worked on, or has been left in limbo. Although the Tribunal recognizes the various reasons why a property may be vacant including bereavement, the Tribunal is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that this remains a very strong public interest factor in favour of disclosure.

Taking all these factors into account, the Tribunal concluded that the public interest favoured disclosure of the information. The Information Commissioner was therefore wrong when he decided that there had been no breach of section 1 of the FOIA.

Information rights successfully relied upon

In summary, this is an interesting example of a case where information rights were successfully relied upon to source information, notwithstanding the negative societal consequences liable to flow from the release of the information. Particularly striking was the Tribunal’s reasoning which suggests, perhaps somewhat surprisingly, that the actions of squatters – at least those of the organized variety – can have a constructive role to play in achieving desirable social ends.

In the view of the Housing Minister Grant Shapps, the decision effectively forced the Council to release a “Squatters’ Road-map”. In a statement criticising the judgment, he went on to say:

…I also want to shut the door on so-called “squatter’s rights” once and for all, and end the misery, expense and hassle that far too many people have had to endure for too long, which is why we are consulting on making squatting a criminal offence.

The Tribunal’s decision was a function of the information rights afforded to every citizen by the FOIA. It is thus not clear what specific “squatters’ rights” the Minister was referring to. In any event, it should be noted that no special rights for squatters are created by the Human Rights Act 1998. There is no right to acquire a home provided in the Convention, and whilst the concept of the “home” under Article 8 (which protects the right to respect for the home) is a factual matter which does not depend on questions of legal title (see paragraphs 8 – 10 of Qazi v London Borough of Harrow [2004] 1 AC 983), the courts have been clear that Article 8 is extremely unlikely to avail a squatter in the face of eviction proceedings brought by or on behalf of those with title to the property (see Kay v Lambeth London Borough Council [2006] 2 AC 465).

Ultimately, the benefits squatters enjoy, and much of the reasoning in this case, is based upon the basic common law principle that it is legal to do something that is not proscribed by law, although as indicated in the Minister’s statement, that principle may not avail squatters for much longer.

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6 comments


  1. Frank Jones says:

    This is a nonsense. Squatting may be legal; breaking and entering and subsequent wasting is not. Disclosure, therefore,is a facilitation of crime. Furthermore, an unoccupied dwelling house can still be an object of commercial aspiration, i.e., renting/leasing. Exemption under section 43(2) of the FOIA therefore is still valid.

  2. cez says:

    homeless people are entitled for Human Right so as the poor owners… poor owners that home were stolen ….. where is the human right on that side? where is the human right for people who worked hard, save hard just to buy a house and left for several days and all the saving is gone? and ruin? and taken by squatters? dont just look on ,one side? look both side…. remember, the Government is the one responsible for squatters not the poor owners of the houses.

  3. cez says:

    i guess, squatting is totally wrong, have my cousin went home to our native country for two months, and was just notified that there are other people living inside the house, and when they seized back the house, (thank God for the neighbors, they are ready to use force)…. it was totally empty and wrecked… i have my heart with those homeless people, but squatting and stealing other properties is a crime…

    it is very organized, they changed locks to look like they didnt break in just to get in… but the house is totally empty all the appliances were all gone.

    the sad part is that, they have spent their retirement for the safe and secured house… but ended up with squatters ruing all that they have save. now, where is the human right there?

    fellow citizen doesn’t owe anything from the homeless,, the government is the responsible for them, ask the Government one the poor people home you are trying to steal their home.

    ask the government a house for you, do not steal other house….

  4. John Dowdle says:

    Local authorities have powers to compulsorily purchase unoccupied properties.
    At a time when there is a clear shortage of rentable and saleable properties in areas like London, it is unclear why Councils such as Camden do not buy up empty properties in order to rent them out to people on their housing lists or to offer for sale to meet the housing needs of people who can afford to buy their own homes. This would benefit the local council and the local community.
    It is also possible that local authorities would benefit financially by making a surplus upon disposition of the properties, as well as being able easily to collect council tax payments from the new occupiers.

  5. Stephen says:

    Well done, Mr. Voyias, He shows us what a determined and intelligent campaigner can do. It is gratifying to see the Tribunal acknowledge that squatting can (and often does) promote the public interest.

    If the government does make squatting illegal then I hope it will enact complementary legislation that makes it a criminal offence to leave an otherwise habitable property empty, whether or not in need of renovation, without good cause.

    1. FatherDougal says:

      You are talking nonsense.

      I do not think that local authorities should even have the ability to compulsory purchase as suggested by John but if I were to accept this, then I say it should be done to house those currently on local authority housing lists, the majority of whom have been waiting for years, not middle-class student wannabes who would rather have something for free than pay.

      Squatting does not promote ‘the public interest’ it hampers it. Although it maybe permitted under common law, it should be morally condemned. We urgently require statutory intervention in order to prohibit these vagrants from marauding through our streets looking for opportunities. This distinction between ‘opportunistic’ and ‘organised’ squatting is a fallacy. In fact, organised squatting is worse.

      ‘…Although the Tribunal recognizes the various reasons why a property may be vacant including bereavement, the Tribunal is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that this remains a very strong public interest factor in favour of disclosure…’ There is no strong public interest but there is a very strong indivdual interest for these vagrants.

      You say – ‘…If the government does make squatting illegal then I hope it will enact complementary legislation that makes it a criminal offence to leave an otherwise habitable property empty, whether or not in need of renovation, without good cause…’.

      What next? Those who can commute on public transport but who decide to commute in their car – those who have a washing line in their garden to dry their close but decide to put them in the tumbledryer.
      If I want to buy a house and then decide not to live in it, that it my perogative and I should not have to fear vagrants breaking in and changing the locks in order to keep me out that’s criminal.

      I always think this issue is rather like the issues regarding Gypsy/Traveller advocates: it’s not a problem until it’s a problem next door.

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Andrew Prince Charles prince of wales princess caroline of monaco principle of subsidiarity prior restraint prison Prisoners prisoners rights prisoners voting prisoner vote prisoner votes prisoner voting prison numbers prison rules Prisons prison vote privacy privacy injunction privacy law through the front door private disputes Private life private nuisance private use procedural unfairness Procedure proceeds of crime Professional Discipline professional indemnity Professional life Property property rights proportionality prosecution Protection of Freedoms Act Protection of Freedoms Bill protective costs Protest protest camp protest rights Protocol 15 psychiatric hospitals psychology psychotherapy Public/Private public access publication public authorities public authority public bodies Public Bodies Bill public figure public funding public inquiries public inquiry public interest public interest environmental litigation public interest immunity public interest litigation publicity public law unfairness Public Order public powers public procurement Public Sector Equality Duty Public Services Ombudsman Putin putting the past behind quango quantum quarantine Queen's Speech queer in the 21st century R (on the application of) v Joint Committee of Primary Care Trusts & Anor [2012] EWCA Civ 472 R (on the application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Ors [2011] EWCA Civ 895 R (on the application of) v The General Medical Council [2013] EWHC 2839 (Admin) R (on the application of EH) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWHC 2569 (Admin) R (on the application of G) v The Governors of X School Rabone Rabone and another v Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust [2012] UKSC 2 Race race relations Rachel Corrie racial discrimination Racial equality radio radiotherapy Radmacher Raed Salah Mahajna Raed Saleh Ramsgate randomised controlled trial rape rape case raptors Ratcliffe 6 Ratcliffe on Soar Ratcliffe power station rating rationality rcs RCW v A 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retrospectivity rev paul nicholson reynolds Reynolds defence Re [2012] EWCA Civ 1233 richard III Richard O'Dwyer right of appeal rightsifno RightsInfo rights of children Right to a fair hearing right to a fair trial right to a home right to a remedy right to artistic expression right to a student loan right to autonomy right to autonomy and privacy right to die right to dies right to die with dignity right to dignity right to education right to expression right to family life right to food right to free enjoyment of possessions right to information right to liberty right to life right to peaceful enjoyment of property Right to Privacy right to private and family life right to refuse treatment right to respect for private life right to silence right to strike right to swim right to truth right to vote Rihanna Rio Ferdinand riots ripa rise of fascism risk risk assessment rival supermarkets Roma Roman Catholic Roman Catholic Church roman catholic schools Romania Rooney's Gold roundup roundup ready Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust royal dutch petroleum royal name Royal Oper House Royal Prerogative rule of law Rupert Jackson Rusal Russia russia and human rights Russian Federal Security Service Rutherford Ryanair s sadie frost Safari same-sex same sex parents same sex partnerships same sex relationship sanctions set aside sanctity of life Sandiford Sapiens Sarah Ferguson sark satire saudi arabia Savage (Respondent) v South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust Saville Report schedule 7 schizophrenia school building school surveillance schrems science scientific atheism scientific research scientology Scoppola Scotland Scotland Act Scotland Act 1998 Scotland Bill Scottish Government Scottish Human Rights Commission scottish landlord and tenant Scottish Parliament SCOTUS sea fishing seals Seal v UK search engines search powers secondary legislation secondary smoking secrecy Secretary of State Secretary of State for the Home Department v AP secret courts secret criminal trial secret evidence secret justice Secret trials sectarianism secularism security security cameras security services security vetting Sedar Mohammed segregation Select Committee on AI self-defence self-incrimination seminar sentencing September 11 serco serious harm sermon Seroxat service outside jurisdiction set-off Sewel Convention sex abuse sex ban sex ban low IQ sex offender Sex offenders sex register sexual abuse Sexual Offences sexual orientation sexual orientation regulations SFO investigation sfo unlawfulness shaker aamer Shamima Begum sham marriage shared residence order Sharon Shoesmith shetland shipping shipwreck Shirley Chaplin shooting shoulder shrug should trees have rights SIAC sihkism Simon Singh sir alan ward Sir Nicholas Wall Sir Peter six months rule slander slaughterhouses slavery smacking small claims court small solar Smith Smith & Ors v The Ministry of Defence [2012] EWCA Civ 1365 smog smoking ban Snyder v Phelps social and economic rights social benefits social housing socialite social media social security law social welfare social workers Solicitorsfromhell website solitary confinement soma somali pirates sources South Africa south african constitution sovereignty Sovereignty clause soviet union soybean Spanish properties spare room subsidy special advocate special advocates species specific performance spending cuts spielmann squatters Standing standing rules starvation state immunity statelessness statute statutory power Statutory purpose stay of execution stem cell research stem cells stem cell therapy Stephen Gough stephen sedley stepping hill hospital Sterilisation steve macqueen Steven Neary stobart-law stop and search stop powers Stormont Assembly storms Strasborug Strasbourg Strasbourg Court strasbourg damages pirates strasbourg law Strasbourg terminology strategic environmental assessment strike strike out Strikes student loans sturgeon subsidies Sugar v BBC suicide suicide act 1961 super injunction super injunctions supermax prisons superstition Supreme Court Supreme Court Live Supreme Court of Canada Supreme Court Scotland surgery surrogacy surrogacy arrangement surveillance swine flu Syria systemic violence Take That tallinn tariff Taser Tax tax avoidance tax discrimination tchenguiz technology Telegraph telephone preference service television justice tenancy tent city termination termination of pregnancy terror asset freezing Terrorism terrorism act terrorism act 2000 terrorism legislation terrorism prosecution terrorist finance terrorist threat terry pratchett Tesla testamentary dispositions The Bike Project the Catholic church The Corner House theism The Law in These Parts therapy Theresa May the right to privacy The Stig The Sun third countries third party appeals three way case time limits time limits in human rights Tobacco tobacco cartels Top Gear tort Torture torture inquiry totally without merit TPIM TPP tracking trade trade secrets trades unions trade union congress Trade Unions transexual transsexual transsexuals travel travellers travel restrictions treason treatment treaty treaty accession trial by jury trolling TTIP TTM v London Borough of Hackney & Ors Tugendhat tumour Turkey tweeting in court Twitter twitter in court Twitter Joke Trial UK UK citizenship uk constitution UK election UK Human Rights Blog UK Human Rights Roundup UKIP UK Jewish Film Festival ukraine UK Supreme Court UK Uncut ultra orthodox jews ultra vires UN unable to vote unacceptable behaviour policy unaccompanied minors unborn child UN Convention on the Rights of the Child unelected judges unemployment unfair consultation unfair dismissal unfairness at hearing Unison Unite United Against Fascism Group United Kingdom United Nations United States United States v Windsor universal declaration of human rights universal jurisdiction Universal Periodic Review University University Fees university of east anglia University of Southampton unjust and oppressive unlawful arrest 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Marbury wills wind farms wind turbine Winterbourne View witchcraft withdrawal of treatment women's rights Woolas worboys Workers working time directive wrongful birth wrongful conception wrongful life WTO wuhan X AND OTHERS v. AUSTRIA - 19010/07 - HEJUD [2013] ECHR 148 X Factor XX v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWCA Civ 742 X Y and Z v UK Yemshaw Yildirim v Turkey Your freedom website YouTube yukos Yuval Noah Hariri Zakir Naik Zanu-PF Zero Hours Contracts ZH (Tanzania) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Zimbabwe Zimbabwe farm invasions ZN (Afghanistan) (FC) and others ZZ [2015] CSIH 29 [2015] CSOH 168 £750

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