The troubling case of Rachel Corrie

12 September 2012 by

Almost ten years after the death of Rachel Corrie on 16 March 2003, her case still raises troubling questions. How was a 23-year-old protester killed by an Israeli military bulldozer? Did the driver do it deliberately, as the family have claimed? Were the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) responsible in some other way?

Those questions were all in play in a civil negligence claim brought against the Israeli state by Corrie’s family, who claimed $1 in damages. Having exhausted other avenues, the family were looking for answers, not a pay out. The Haifa District Court examined the issues over 15 days of oral testimony, and two weeks ago Judge Oded Gershon released a 73-page ruling (Hebrew) as well as a detailed summary of the Judgment (English).

I was particularly interested in the judgment as a significant proportion of my work recently has involved public inquiries into allegations against the British Armed Forces over events which happened in Iraq in 2003/4. Unfortunately, the reporting of the ruling has been fairly poor. The Guardian published eight articles and a cartoon about the ruling (by comparison, the appointment of a new Justice Secretary generated four). But despite the sheer volume of commentary, I had no sense from reading the articles that the writers had attended the oral hearings, read the judgment (which is long and in Hebrew) or even consider the court’s English summary. The Guardian’s legal section is very good so it is disappointing that the legal interest of the story was largely ignored.

With this in mind, I thought I would post a summary of the judgment and brief discussion of how an equivalent claim would work in the UK.

Two issues

Rachel Corrie was killed in 2003 whilst attempting to stop house demolitions by the Israeli military. At the time, the Israelis and Palestinians were in the depths of a bitter conflict known as the Second Intifada, or uprising. Corrie was part of a group organised by the International Solidarity Movement.

This was a civil negligence claim, and there were two main issues. First, whether the area in which Corrie was attempting to stop house demolitions on behalf of the International Solidarity Movement was “a war-related action” as defined in Israel’s Civil Wrongs Ordinance (CWO). This was essential to the case as according to Article 5 of the CWO in operation at the time,

The State is not civilly liable for an act done in the course of a war operation of the Israel Defense Forces

So, if Corrie’s death occurred “in the course of a war operation“, then the state could not be liable in civil negligence. “War operation” is defined as “any action combating terror, hostile acts, or insurrection, and also an action intended to prevent terror, hostile acts, or insurrection that is taken in a situation endangering life or limb“.

The CWO has seen some changes both before and after Corrie’s death, as detailed here. There has been a regular back and forth between Israel’s Supreme Court and the Knesset (parliament), limiting and expanding the scope of liability for accidents. A few months before Corrie’s death, the definition of ‘war operation’ was expanded to include anti-terrorist operations.

The king can do no wrong

Exemptions for negligence liability in war zones are not unusual. Here in the UK, the Armed Forces used to enjoy a wide statutory exemption, including any acts which occurred whilst a member was “on duty” (a reflection of the ancient principle of Crown Immunity, also known as the “king could do no wrong”). That was repealed in 1987 but remained in force for events occurring prior to that date (the House of Lords later found this to be compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights). Since then, the courts have continued to refuse claims which occurred during combat operations, although the Armed Forces’ policy is to compensate soldiers for certain injuries anyway.

As to enemy combatants or third parties, until recently there was little hope of succeeding in a damages claim, but the European Court of Human Rights had a lot to say on this in 2011 – see our posts on Al-Skeini and Al-Jedda. As a result, any future wars may generate a significant number of damages claims under the Human Rights Act which prior to 2011 would have been impossible. Israel is not signed up to the ECHR, although it has ‘observer status’ at the Council of Europe, so a similar international claim would not be possible there.

Returning to Rachel Corrie, the Israeli court found that the bulldozer which killed Corrie was indeed involved in a “war related action”:

The force’s action was designed to prevent acts of terror and hostility, i.e. to eliminate the danger of terrorists hiding between the creases of land and in the brush, and to expose explosive devices hidden therein, both of which were intended to kill IDF soldiers. During each act of exposure, the lives of the IDF fighters were at risk from Palestinians terrorists.

Indeed, the court found that “mission did not include, in any way, the demolition of homes”, the very action which Corrie was acting to prevent.This therefore put paid to the negligence claim, as under the CWO there was no liability. Of course, this could be appealed – see this article by the family’s lawyer who disputes the finding that the area was a closed military zone, which I assume (although this is not clear from the summary) may have a bearing on whether the bulldozer was engaged in a “war related action”.

In any event

Despite the “war related action” finding being enough to dispose of the action, the Judge went on to make detailed findings on the facts. Why? Because if the family succeeds on appeal in showing that the action did not occur as part of a war related action, then the Supreme Court will have to examine the facts to see whether it would be fair to impose liability on the state. If so, Corrie’s family face some very significant challenges.

For example, the IDF force were “very careful” not to harm the activists, having “repeatedly relocated to continue carrying out their mission“. As to what the Bulldozer could see and hear (the coverage has made much of the fact that Corrie was wearing a bright orange vest), Corrie was in the driver’s “blind spot“, having been “behind the bulldozer’s blade and behind a pile of dirt“. It appears that Corrie was already partly buried in a pile of dirt by the time the bulldozer hit her. Perhaps the most difficult piece of evidence for the family’s case is this:

an expert who testified on behalf of the Corrie family also noted that the driver could not and did not see Ms.Corrie due to the nature of the vehicle he was operating

If the family’s own expert witness agreed that the driver could not have seen Corrie, it is difficult to see how he could have been negligent. It might be said that knowing that there were activists in the area, those carrying out the mission should have simply stopped in order to avoid danger to them. But that point can only be taken so far; I am fairly confident that an English court would also sympathise with an Army fighting a war (which in March 2003 this undoubtedly was) having to deal with activists attempting to sabotage that effort.

Blaming the victim

Much has been made of the court “blaming the victim”. This is the most difficult part of the ruling. Based on the imperfect Google translation of the judgment that I read, it seems that the judge was particularly critical of Corrie’s actions as was as those of the International Solidarity Movement. My impression was that some of the criticisms may have crossed the line to political rather than judicial statements, excoriating the movement and its alleged collusion with terrorists. But those points, whether inappropriate or not, were incidental to the claim, which focussed necessarily on the narrow facts of this incident in deciding where blame lies. And on that, the judge ruled:

[Corrie] put herself in a dangerous situation. She stood in front of a large bulldozer in a location where the bulldozer’s operator could not see her. Even when she saw the pile of dirt moving towards her and endangering her, she did not remove herself from the situation, as any reasonable person would have. The decedent began to climb the pile of dirt, got tangled up in it, fell and eventually died

This may be difficult reading for the family but I cannot see much that would be out of place in an ordinary English negligence claim. Perhaps by saying that “any reasonable person would have” moved out of the way somewhat ignores and undermines the courage Corrie undoubtedly demonstrated in challenging what she saw as unlawful and immoral action in a non-violent fashion. But applying ordinary negligence and contributory negligence and volenti (voluntary assumption of risk) principles, she did put herself in harm’s way and therefore may well have borne some or all of the blame for what happened.

Trouble with memory

All that said, there is an important proviso in relation to the facts of this case. This was a case which hinges on just a few moments. And the court was examining a few moments which occurred almost ten years ago. As such, I have no doubt that however well the witnesses who gave evidence say they recall events, their memories will have been imperfect at best. From my experience, people (including me) often cannot remember what happened to them a year ago, let alone a decade ago.

This means that in getting to the bottom of things, much reliance will have to be placed on investigations which were carried out much closer to the events. The family has always said these were flawed. The judge ruled that they were not, but again that might be a point of appeal. The US Ambassador to Israel has criticised the initial investigation. But if the investigation was inadequate, unfortunately there may be little that can be done to rectify that now.

A troubling case

It is quite possible that the Israeli Supreme Court will have more to say about Corrie’s death. But the legal hill which the family need to climb is steep. Even if Judge Gershon was wrong on whether combat immunity applied at the time and place of Corrie’s death, the Supreme Court will have to rely on many of his factual findings, although it may be possible to quibble with the conclusions he reached from them. The fact that the Corrie family’s expert accepted that the bulldozer driver would not have seen her will be particularly difficult to overcome, as it would be in any negligence claim on these shores.

As I have said, the coverage was also troubling. It is a shame, although not surprising, that The Guardian chose to call the result a whitewash without really explaining why that was, how or why an independent judge participated in it and how to explain some of the difficult factual findings he made without any reference to the evidence. My impression is that those conclusions were reached long before this detailed judgment was released.

The intense politicisation of this case is regrettable as there are a lot of interesting issues, aside from the troubling facts, which are relevant here: the proper scope of combat immunity, the adequacy or otherwise of internal military investigations, the difficulty which the British Armed Forces may face in the next war with the potential for hundreds or even thousands of negligence claims arising afterwards following the European Court of Human Rights’ recent rulings. Politicised coverage of legal judgments helps no one, including the victims of tragedies such as the death of Rachel Corrie.

Sign up to free human rights updates by email, Facebook, Twitter or RSS

Read more


  1. Andrew says:

    John: The party list system by which the 120 (not 100) MKs are elected is not perfect but it is a valid form of p.r. and like any other it leaves permanent minorities: but that is democracy. There is a permanent Tory minority in Sheffield and a permanent labour minority in Rickmansworth but nobody suggests they are entitled to a share in power there.

    In any event the Israeli form of democracy stands out like a beacon in the region to anyone not wearing blinkers.

    Gaza: how difficult is it to grasp that if that unhappy territory was not used to attack Israeli citizens the Israeli government would have not possible motive to attack it? It has been rightly pointed out that the German Blitz led to retaliation on the massive scale and alas, many German children died. Or are you one of those who think the British should have turned the other cheek too?

    That a few crackpots among the Yishuv somehow thought it made sense to fight alongside the Nazis may be true: there are crackpots everywhere. But you will probably be aware of how many of the men of the Yishuv joined the British and later the American forces.

    John: I don’t think the Israelis are faultless; who is? But you know what they are facing. When their neighbours – including Iran – finally accept that Israel is there and is staying there many things will become possible to the benefit of all concerned. And you must know that that is true.

  2. John D says:

    Israeli elections are a sham. They effectively disenfranchise the 20% of Israelis who are remnants of the original Palestinians who lived in all of Palestine (from the Mediterranean to the River Jordan) before the murderous ethnic cleansing of Palestinians took place from 1948 onwards unto the present day. This particular period of history is not in which Britain covered itself in glory either. None of the Palestinians in the occupied zone have votes, do they? Why not? They are governed from Tel Aviv, are they not?
    The Knesset has 100 elected Members. Roughly, for each 1% share of the vote a party receives, they gain one Member of Knesset (MK).
    The Palestinian voters elect 20 MKs, who are effectively frozen out of government so it is evident that their right to democratic representation is breached. To form a government, it is necessary to have a group or bloc of at least 51 MKs out of the remaining 80 MKs – not an easy thing to achieve.
    This is why extremist religious and settler parties have been calling the shots for years in Israel, and it this extremist and racist form of government which makes it impossible to achieve any kind of peaceful resolution.
    I would be happy to see Israel holding itself to its self-declared standards – except that they do not. The 2008/9 mass murder of 1,400 people in Gaza, using illegal weapons such as phosphorous bombs deny the standards they claim for themselves. The fact that the victims included 400 children who died in the most appallingly cruel manner completely undermines the claims that Israel is a humane and tolerant regime. The one very slight relief in all of this gloomy landscape is the ethical standards of the judiciary, though regrettably their judgments are routinely ignored by the fascistic politicians of Israel.
    I don’t deny that Palestinians did try to resist the massive land grab carried out by the Zionists in 1948 but they were confronted by an enemy enjoying massive military superiority who brought to their campaign a degree of ruthlessness not seen since the Nazis – who the Zionists had offered to fight alongside – against the British – during World War Two. Nice guys, eh?

  3. Andrew says:

    Istael elects its government by lively democratic process. I don’t agree with all it does, nobody could, but the seculars and the opposition have a voice and a vote, and Israel has a flourishing and independent media.

    The Corrrie family have not been denied justice simply because they have lost – somebody has to in litigation. The fact that they were allowed to sue and thought it worthwhile speaks volumes.

    Somehow, Israel is persistently held to higher standards than its neighbours, in whose courts such litigation could never have got off the ground.

    This is not the place for me to try to teach or you to try to learn the history of 1948. Suffice it to say that there were and are great numbers determined that the ethnic cleansing should run in the opposite direction to that which you imagine. I fear you are one of those who would prefer it if the Israelis would fold their tents and somehow just disappear, and it is not going to happen.

  4. John D says:

    Andrew: look – again – at just how long it has taken for this pseudo-ritual of justice to take place: over 9 years – and still no satisfactory outcome for Rachel Corrie’s parents and sibling.
    You think Israel is a democracy? It is not. It is a murderous racist regime which is intent on becoming a theocracy – just like Iran.
    Have you not heard of the Nakba, when thousand of Palestinian men were murdered, along with children and women, who were often raped first by the Haganah units involved in deliberate ethnic cleansing of innocent Palestinians.
    Some 750,000 Palestinians were forced out of their homes and made to flee out of their country to seek refuge in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Elements of the Stern Gang and Irgun terrorists were also involved in the ethnic cleansing of more than 500 villages and 10 urban areas, which were all deliberately targeted for demolition and cover-up by the planting of trees to ensure the original inhabitants would not be able to return to their homes.
    Since then, the military aggression of the Israel military machine has created a further 250,000 refugess, so that at least one million Palestinians have lost their homes and livelihoods to date. How many of them do you suppose were allowed to vote on this policy? Israeli democracy? You are joking !!!

  5. Andrew says:

    Imagine trying to litigate the same incident in the court of any Arab country?

    Good to see an article which appreciates the truth of there being a war on.

    The government of the only democratic nation in the region was not and is not attempting ethnic cleansing – they could have done that at any time after 1967 – but is determined that Gaza will not be used as a base for attacks on its civilians – which is its right and its duty.

  6. brooger says:
  7. brooger says:

    Long been an admirer of this blog, but taken aback by this article, particularly (by your rather flippant conclusion that “if the investigation was inadequate, unfortunately there may be little that can be done to rectify that now.”

    According to Amnesty International – ” The full military investigation has never been made public, but US government officials have stated that they do not believe the investigation was ‘thorough, credible and transparent.’

    Amnesty’s report shows there is clearly much that could still be done even with the passage of time – beginning with full disclosure of all the relevant material in the possession of the Israeli military, particularly if it includes video footage of the incident as the family allege.

    These disclosure failings and concerns over the flawed investigation give rise to serious doubts over the credibility of these proceedings, even if one accepts the Judge handled the case impeccably. Against this background, and while there may well be evidence that supports the case presented by the Israeli military, the Corrie family are right to feel aggrieved on the basis that they have not had a fair hearing.

    There are sound legal reasons that have nothing to do with “politicised coverage” or anti-Israeli bias in the media for concluding that this trial failed to meet internationally recognised standards of fairness.

  8. Clive Walker says:

    Leaving aside the validity of the judgment in Israeli law, surely the above commentary about how equivalent facts would be treated in English law should take account of McCann and Others v United Kingdom Series A, No 324, Application No 18984/91 (1995). Don’t set up your military operation in a way which avoidably results in a threat to life of a member of the public if there are modified tactics which could be used. Whether Corrie contributed to her death or not, UK military forces would be obliged to consider and react to the risk which she and her colleagues were so keen to create. It is arguably not enough just to fire a few warning shots etc and carry on regardless.

  9. John D says:

    Apart from the murderous conduct of the Israelis is the fact that the whole process of arriving at the truth of the situation has been dragged out over 9 years. Even now, we seem to be no nearer finding out the truth. Perhaps Rachel Corrie was imprudent in attempting to stand in the way of an Israeli military bulldozer in a vain attempt to stop them demolishing the home of a Palestinian family – but is that any good reason for killing her?

  10. Robert Nevins says:

    Reinforces that wars are for fighters, not for non-violent protestors. Corries’ actions display almost a belief in her own immortality, which certainly wouldn’t apply to the Palestinians in the action.

  11. fleurblack says:

    Rachel Corrie chose to believe that irresponsible action that was acceptable in UK was also acceptable in the area of the incident where the fascist Isrealis were ethnically cleansing an area.
    The Israeli fascists feel and apparently are above all international law when it suits them so to put herself in conflict with them was her own deluded fault.
    Other people have tried to stop the Israelis ethnic cleansing with similar tragic results.
    Israel joined the UN in 1949 but isn’t bound by the UN treaties.

Welcome to the UKHRB

This blog is run by 1 Crown Office Row barristers' chambers. Subscribe for free updates here. The blog's editorial team is:
Commissioning Editor: Jonathan Metzer
Editorial Team: Rosalind English
Angus McCullough QC David Hart QC
Martin Downs
Jim Duffy

Free email updates

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog for free and receive weekly notifications of new posts by email.




This blog is maintained for information purposes only. It is not intended to be a source of legal advice and must not be relied upon as such. Blog posts reflect the views and opinions of their individual authors, not of chambers as a whole.

Our privacy policy can be found on our ‘subscribe’ page or by clicking here.


Aarhus Abortion Abu Qatada Abuse Access to justice adoption ALBA Al Qaeda animal rights anonymity Article 1 Protocol 1 Article 2 article 3 Article 4 article 5 Article 6 Article 8 Article 9 article 10 Article 11 article 13 Article 14 Artificial Intelligence Asbestos assisted suicide asylum Australia autism benefits Bill of Rights biotechnology blogging Bloody Sunday brexit Bribery Catholicism Chagos Islanders Children children's rights China christianity citizenship civil liberties campaigners climate change clinical negligence Coercion common law confidentiality consent conservation constitution contempt of court Control orders Copyright coronavirus costs Court of Protection crime Cybersecurity Damages data protection death penalty defamation deportation deprivation of liberty Detention disability disclosure Discrimination disease divorce DNA domestic violence duty of care ECHR ECtHR Education election Employment Environment Equality Act Ethiopia EU EU Charter of Fundamental Rights EU costs EU law European Court of Justice evidence extradition extraordinary rendition Family Fertility FGM Finance foreign criminals foreign office France freedom of assembly Freedom of Expression freedom of information freedom of speech Gay marriage Gaza genetics Germany Google Grenfell Health HIV home office Housing HRLA human rights Human Rights Act human rights news Huntington's Disease immigration India Indonesia injunction Inquests international law internet Inuit Iran Iraq Ireland Islam Israel Italy IVF Japan Judaism judicial review jury trial JUSTICE Justice and Security Bill Law Pod UK legal aid Leveson Inquiry LGBTQ Rights liability Libel Liberty Libya Lithuania local authorities marriage mental capacity Mental Health military Ministry of Justice modern slavery music Muslim nationality national security NHS Northern Ireland nuclear challenges Obituary ouster clauses parental rights parliamentary expenses scandal patents Pensions Personal Injury Piracy Plagiarism planning Poland Police Politics pollution press Prisoners Prisons privacy Professional Discipline Property proportionality Protection of Freedoms Bill Protest Public/Private public access public authorities public inquiries rehabilitation Reith Lectures Religion RightsInfo right to die right to family life Right to Privacy right to swim riots Roma Romania Round Up Royals Russia Saudi Arabia Scotland secrecy secret justice sexual offence Sikhism Smoking social media South Africa Spain special advocates Sports Standing statelessness stop and search Strasbourg Supreme Court Supreme Court of Canada surrogacy surveillance Syria Tax technology Terrorism tort Torture travel treaty TTIP Turkey UK Ukraine USA US Supreme Court vicarious liability Wales War Crimes Wars Welfare Western Sahara Whistleblowing Wikileaks wind farms WomenInLaw YearInReview Zimbabwe
%d bloggers like this: