Beware the poor lawyer: the legal aid reform responses

18 February 2011 by

The consultation on the Government’s proposed reforms of legal aid closed on Monday 14th February. The reforms amount to a substantial reduction in the scope of and eligibility for legal aid.  When opposition to reform of access to forests can force a Government U-turn, can opposition to reform of access to justice do the same?

In a recent interview with the Daily Telegraph,  Clarke was said to be sanguine about criticism of legal aid cuts:

Oddly enough, I’m not in as much difficulty as I thought.

His inbox may, therefore, have come as a surprise on Monday morning.  Jonathan Djanogly, the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State with responsibility for Legal Aid, told the Justice Committee that 5000 responses to the consultation on the proposed reforms of Legal Aid had been received.   Justice for All, the coalition of community groups, charities and  legal and advice agencies campaigning against legal aid reform, said more than 4000 people had taken part in their campaign to send the Lord Chancellor Valentine’s Day messages of support for legal aid.

5000 responses

Naturally, all 5000 responses cannot be reprised here – not all are public, many are extremely lengthy, some defy summary.  A selection of views are outlined below.

The Bar Council, the governing body for all barristers in England and Wales, in their lengthy response to the Consultation Paper on the Proposed Reforms consider that

… the thrust of these proposals is constrained to the demolition of much of the architecture of legal aid upon which so many disadvantaged members of the public rely….  We recognise the value of reform but the legal aid system must provide full and proper assistance to those who really need it.  The scope of legal aid must not be crudely chopped but re-drawn in such a way as to ensure that vulnerable individuals continue to be protected.” [§2-3]

Specific objections raised by the Bar Council include:

(1) The detrimental effect on vulnerable people:  including the risk that vulnerable adults remain trapped in situations where they are exposed to (increasing) risk of harm:

In many instances those entering the family and civil courts are socially, intellectually, emotionally or economically disadvantaged.  If they experience difficulty in obtaining the advice they clearly require, then many abandon  justice – compromising the very rights and freedoms which underpin our society, and more worryingly, possibly imperiling the lives of [the] vulnerable.” [§8]

(2) Uncertain and/or detrimental effect on the public purse:   the Bar Council criticise the reforms as being “far from clear as to exactly what savings are sought” [§54] and note that the reforms lack any over-arching principles in the allocation of savings across areas of legal aid [§61-62].  Contrary to Jonathan Djanogly’s reported statement that “at more than £2billion a year, we pay far more per head than most other countries for legal aid“, the Bar Council produces figures from a Ministry of Justice study that illustrate that the UK total spend on publicly funded legal services is broadly in line with European countries such as Sweden and the Netherlands, and it is only the allocation between legal aid and court costs that differs [§70].

The thrust of the criticism is that the effect on court or tribunal operating costs of the increase in litigants in person has not been properly assessed [§15, §107].   The evidence is that there are generally fewer hearings where both parties are represented  [§96(b)] and hearings are less likely to overrun [§96(h)].  Effectively, spending  public funds on more protracted and more numerous hearings, rather than experienced lawyers, does not amount to a saving to the public purse.

It is further noted that removing an area of legal redress from scope does not resolve the original problem, it merely pushes the problem on to a different public service [§14].

The Bar Council conclude that

The savings sought of £350 million will not be achieved by the Government’s proposals – indeed we are certain that costs will increase, because of inevitable downstream effects on court costs.” [§54]

(3) Negative effect on diversity and equality

The Bar Council’s comments on diversity and equality is premised in part on their:

alarm by the lack of evidence underpinning some of the key proposals set out in the Green Paper, particularly relating to clients and the Bar. In relation to clients there is insufficient date relating to disability and ethnicity. The existing data relating to gender is concerning” [§77]

The Bar Council argue that the current approach will have a direct effect on equality and diversity at entry-level as:

there is a significant risk that only those with access to other income, such as assistance from parents, will be able to afford to enter the legally aided bar, especially as the changes to tuition fees will increase the level of student debt accumulated before entering the profession” [§90].

The evidence provided by the Bar Council illustrates that women, both caucasian and Black and Ethnic Minority [‘BME’], tend to have a greater percentage of their practice made up of publicly funded work. Cuts in criminal legal aid are likely to have a disproportionate effect on BME members because a higher proportion of BME practitioners undertake publicly funded work [§46]. One third of BME females report more than 91% of their practice being publicly funded [§81(e)].  The reforms are thus likely to have a greater detrimental impact on female and BME practitioners which, in time, will have an effect on the diversity of the judiciary, a concern the Report of the Advisory Panel  on Judicial Diversity 2010 raised:

any disproportionate impact on women and BAME professionals would be a cause for concern, as it would impact upon the eligible pool for judicial office. This needs to be closely monitored.” [at §69 of the Report].

(4) Negative Effect on the Rule of Law and Human Rights

The Bar Council argues that the negative effects outlined above undermine the regulatory objectives as set out in the Legal Services Act 2007 including the objective of “improving access to justice” under section 1(1)(c), particularly if the reforms result in inequality of arms [§49] and the objective of “encouraging an independent, strong, diverse and effective legal profession” under section 1(1)(f)  if the reforms, as expected, have a negative effect weighted towards female and BME lawyers [§47].

The Bar Council considers that:

the quality of justice will be strained, and very severely… The quantity of justice will be restrained too.” [§54]

The Bar Council notes that restrictions on legal aid will have a particularly negative effect on certain areas including:

  • Family cases involving abuse – the Bar Council raise the anomaly that if an alleged sexual assault or abuse is the subject of a monetary claim or criminal proceedings legal aid will be available, but if the same is the issue of family proceedings where a child may be removed from the family, legal aid will not be available.
  • Clinical negligence cases – a particularly controversial area, as previously elucidated by Henry Witcomb of 1 Crown Office Row.   The Bar Council notes the fundamental inequality of arms between the funded doctor and the unfunded claimant [§124], examines the difficulties of CFAs for clinical negligence and that the new regime seems ill-suited to such cases [§112(h) and §161] and recommends that clinical negligence should not be withdrawn from scope for claims by children [§161(h)]. The Bar Council also considers:

that the particular problems faced by victims of clinical negligence in obtaining access to justice mean that the state would be failing in its duties under Article 6.1 if some form of assistance by way of civil legal aid were not available: see Airey v Ireland 2 EHRR 305” [§112(d)]

It is worth noting that in a recent survey for the Access to Justice Action Group Response to the Proposals for Reform of Civil Litigation [the Jackson report], only 19% of respondents felt that the cuts should include reducing or not paying compensation for NHS negligence [pg 77].

  • Criminal Injuries – the Bar Council considers it would be counterproductive to recent advances in recognition of the rights of victims of crime for the efficacy of their claims to the criminal Injuries compensation Authority to be impeded by lack of legal advice [§163]

As to the effect on human rights, the Bar Council considers that:

cuts in public funding for those who are the most vulnerable in our society will indeed have the effect of denying “effective” rights of access to the Courts; it is “effective” access which Article 6 [of the ECHR] guarantees” [§146]

The Bar Council refers to the recent case of  DEB DeutscheEnergiehandels‐ und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH v Germany (Case C‐279/09) (delivered on the 22nd December 2010) in which the Second Chamber of the European Court of Justice  held that:

“the granting of legal aid is a measure of social assistance which is derived from the principle of the social State and is necessary for the safeguarding of human dignity” [§24 of the judgment]

and “it is for the national court to ascertain whether the conditions for granting legal aid constitute a limitation on the right of access to the courts which undermines the very core of that right” [§60 of the judgment].

The Law Society, which represents solicitors and is now wielding Joanna Lumley as a supporter of its Sound Off for Justice Campaign, has now released its full formal response.  It believes:

Not every country is cutting its legal aid budgets… other countries recognise the importance of access to justice to the extent of ring-fencing and even increasing provision despite the financial pressures… We therefore do not accept the premise that cuts to the legal aid budget are anything other than a political choice.  It is a choice that we regard as deplorable” [§1.5-1.6]

The Law Society disavows the Government’s view that people bring disputes to court too readily as:

One man’s ‘unnecessary litigation’ is another’s holding of Government and others properly to account …” [§1.8]

The Law Society raises particular issues with the Green Paper including that a non-legally aided alleged perpetrator of domestic violence will be obliged to cross-examine the alleged victim in family proceedings (unlike in criminal proceedings) [§2.4.7]; that the impact on children of the family legal aid reforms has not been considered [§2.8.3]; and that the proposals for the removal of education from the scope of legal aid gives insufficient weight to the fact that such cases ‘may affect a child’s educational and future life choices’ and the children affected are likely to be disabled and/or those with special educational needs from deprived backgrounds [§2.18.1].

FRU, the Free Representation Unit which provides advocacy services in tribunals for social security, employment and criminal injuries compensation cases, notes their opposition to the withdrawal of Legal Help in those areas, as it is both cheap [§3(4)(a)(vii)] and reduces the amount of litigation [§3(4)(a) and (c)].   FRU comments that:

There is an implication in the paper that legal aid encourages litigation, especially unmeritorious litigation. In our experience, in the areas of social security, employment and criminal injuries compensation cases, the reverse is true.  Our experience is that legal aid practitioners divert cases away from tribunal, by resolving issues.” [§3(4)(c)].

In considering whether people could represent themselves before such tribunals, FRU reminds the government that the relevant substantive law is difficult to understand, the application to the facts frequently not straightforward and FRU’s own volunteers, despite being articulate students of law with training in the relevant legal areas, often require assistance [§3(4)(d)].  FRU concludes:

the law … is thus complex and the process is forbidding to legally aided clients. In the absence of legal aid for representation, the availability of Legal Help is far better than nothing [§3(4)(f)].

Liberty in its response states that:

Liberty believes that the proposed reforms will create alarming gaps in protection, denying justice to many but hitting the most vulnerable the hardest … This will not simply lead to injustice for the individuals involved, but will contribute towards a culture of impunity amongst the rich and the powerful”. [§2]

Liberty considers that a meaningful human rights culture cannot be fostered without access to justice [§10] and that important human rights are at stake in many of the areas of law earmarked for removal from scope [§11]. Liberty raises the concern that  ‘excluded’ areas of law remain beyond the scope of legal aid at every level of court, leaving all but the wealthiest litigants to present extremely complex legal arguments before the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court [§11].

Liberty also draw attention to Lord Jackson’s comments on the vital necessity of making no further cutbacks in legal aid availability or eligibility:

the legal aid system plays a crucial role in promoting access to justice at proportionate costs in key areas. The statistics set out elsewhere in this report demonstrate that the overall costs of litigation on legal aid are substantially lower than the overall costs of litigation on conditional fee agreements. Since, in respect of a vast swathe of litigation, the costs of both sides are ultimately borne by the public, the maintenance of legal aid at no less than the present levels makes sound economic sense and is in the public interest.” [§4.2 of Lord Jackson’s report]

It was worth noting that the consultation on the Jackson report also closed on Monday. Given the interrelated nature of the funding changes for the civil legal system,  a sequential or joint consultation might have been more effective.  The Bar Council’s response to that consultation can be found here.

It could, of course, be argued that “turkeys don’t vote for Christmas“, but the responses aren’t just from lawyers and legal groups. Among other groups,  Camila Batmanghelidjh wrote with eloquence on the importance of access to justice for the children supported by Kids Company:

I know from the children I work with how important legal aid has been in maintaining their allegiance to civil society. The judges of this country remain outstanding representatives of social justice: it’s only when we get to the courts that children denied housing, education and social care are ensured their rights to dignity and justice. As one boy said when we won a judicial review: “The Queen is on my side.”

Shelter added their voice stating that:

All welfare benefits advice is to be excluded from scope of legal aid. … We believe issues concerning financial entitlement are extremely important when they concern the only source of income a client has. These clients are by their very nature the poorest in society … Welfare benefits law is complex and very often claimants are elderly, ill, disabled or otherwise vulnerable. They rely on their benefits for food, clothing and housing and to participate in society.

To compound this, the proposals come at a time of major upheaval in Housing Benefit and with an entirely new benefits system (the proposed Universal Credit) in the pipeline that people are likely to need legal advice to understand and challenge.” [page 4 of Shelter’s Response].

The Disability Charities Consortium, an informal coalition of seven disability charities [Leonard Cheshire Disability, Mencap, Mind, RNIB, RNID, RADAR and Scope], raised the specific problems the reforms present for disabled people:

“A claim in relation to discrimination will often be intrinsically connected to other claims such as unfair dismissal, consumer issues or special educational need. Most people do not recognise that they have a potential discrimination claim, and this only comes to light after initial legal advice has been sought … [pg 2]

Excluding housing, debt, welfare benefits, education, employment and family law from the scope of legal aid will have a disproportionate impact on disabled people, as they are more likely to experience issues in these areas … [pg 2]

We  ..  also oppose .. the removal of clinical negligence, which will disproportionately affect disabled people who are more likely to need to litigate these issues, by nature of their greater need for treatment [pg 3]

The proposals [on financial eligibility] fail to take into account the extra costs of living with a disability … Taking money from small amounts of savings [people with £1000 are to contribute £100 to their costs] would mean the sacrifice of essential disability-related items, presenting a barrier to accessing legal advice and representation.” … [pg 4]

A seismic shift

A fuller list of responses can be found on ilegal.   It is clear that the Green Paper amounts to a “seismic shift in the landscape of the civil and family justice system” [Bar Council Response §393].  It will be interesting to see if the objections raised by the Bar Council and others could/will eventually form the basis of a legal challenge to the reforms, if implemented as proposed.

As Paul Mason, the Economics Editor of BBC’s Newsnightcommented in relation to events in the Middle East, revolution is generally:

not the product of poor people but of poor lawyers. You can have political/economic setups that disappoint the poor for generations – but if lawyers, teachers and doctors are sitting in their garrets freezing and starving you get revolution. Now, in their garrets, they have a laptop and broadband connection.”

Mr Clarke may find that he needs to beware the poor lawyer.

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Related posts


  1. Paul says:

    check out the Law Centres Federation and Hackney Community Law Centre responses here

    dated 14th February 2011 – in the news section.

  2. Couple of things for the pot:

    TLS has now published its response, here:

    Also, Djanogly confirmed at the Justice Committee this week that there were “more than 5,000” responses, but we just don’t know how many more

    Good round-up Maria, thanks

  3. […] Beware the poor lawyer: the legal aid reform responses « UK Human Rights Blog. […]

  4. ObiterJ says:

    Here is what the Law Society Gazette has published:

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SWITZERLAND - 10593/08 - HEJUD [2012] ECHR 1691 Nadja Benaissa naked rambler Naomi Campbell narcolepsy National Health Act nationality National Origin National Pro Bono Week national security national sovereignty Natural England natural rights nature nature conservation naturism Nazi neanderthals necessary implication need for legal aid needs assessment negligence neighbour dispute Neuberger neural degeneration neurogenerative disease neuroscience Newcastle university news News of the World news roundup new Supreme Court President NGO standing NHS NHS Risk Register NICE Nick Clegg Nicklinson Niqaab niqab No Angels Noise Regulations 2005 non-justiciability nonhuman animals non voluntary euthanasia Northern Ireland Northern Irish Assembly notification requirements nuclear challenges nuisance nurse nursing nursing home obiter dicta Occupy London offensive jokes Offensive Speech offensive t shirt official solicitor of Rights Commission oil and gas oil spill olympics open justice oppress oppressive treatment OPQ v BJM orchestra orthodox schools Osama Bin Laden Osborn v The Parole Board [2013] UKSC 61 ouster clause overseas aid Oxford University Palestinian Territories palliative care palliative sedation paramount consideration paramountcy principle parental responsibility order parental rights parenthood parents responsibility parking spaces parliament parliamentary expenses parliamentary expenses scandal Parliamentary sovereignty Parliament square parole parole board party funding passengers rights passing off passive smoking passport passport seizure pastor Terry Jones patent patents paternity Pathway Students patiets' rights Patrick Quinn murder Paul Chambers PCOs peace-keeping operations Pensions people for the ethical treatment of animals (Peta) performers' rights permanent injunction persecution persistent vegetative state personal data personal information Personal Injury personality rights Personal life perversity Pet Animals Act 1951 Peter and Hazelmary Bull Peter Gibson pet shops PF and EF v UK Philip Lawrence Phil Woolas phone hacking phone taps photos photovoltaics physical and mental disabilities physical restraint physician assisted death Pinnock Piracy PJS placement order planning planning human rights planning system planning time limits plantagenet plebgate pleural plaques POCA podcast points poison Poland Police police investigations police liability police misconduct police powers police surveillance policing Policy Exchange report political advertising political judges political persecution politicians for hire Politics Politics/Public Order pollution polonium poor reporting Pope Pope's visit Pope Benedict porsche 917 portal possession order possession proceedings post mortem Posts power of attorney PoW letters to ministers pre-nup pre-nuptial Pre-trial detention predator control pregnancy preliminary reference prerogative powers press Press Association press briefing press freedom Priest priests primary legislation Prince Andrew Prince Charles prince of wales princess caroline of monaco principle of subsidiarity prior restraint prison Prisoners prisoners rights prisoners voting prisoner vote prisoner votes prisoner voting prison numbers prison rules Prisons prison vote privacy privacy injunction privacy law through the front door private disputes Private life private nuisance private use procedural unfairness Procedure proceeds of crime Professional Discipline professional indemnity Professional life Property property rights proportionality prosecution Protection of Freedoms Act Protection of Freedoms Bill protective costs Protest protest camp protest rights Protocol 15 psychiatric hospitals psychology psychotherapy Public/Private public access publication public authorities public authority public bodies Public Bodies Bill public figure public funding public inquiries public inquiry public interest public interest environmental litigation public interest immunity public interest litigation publicity public law unfairness Public Order public powers public procurement Public Sector Equality Duty Public Services Ombudsman Putin putting the past behind quango quantum quarantine Queen's Speech queer in the 21st century R (on the application of) v Joint Committee of Primary Care Trusts & Anor [2012] EWCA Civ 472 R (on the application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Ors [2011] EWCA Civ 895 R (on the application of) v The General Medical Council [2013] EWHC 2839 (Admin) R (on the application of EH) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWHC 2569 (Admin) R (on the application of G) v The Governors of X School Rabone Rabone and another v Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust [2012] UKSC 2 Race race relations Rachel Corrie racial discrimination Racial equality radio radiotherapy Radmacher Raed Salah Mahajna Raed Saleh Ramsgate randomised controlled trial rape rape case raptors Ratcliffe 6 Ratcliffe on Soar Ratcliffe power station rating rationality rcs RCW v A Local Authority reasonableness reasons reasons challenges recent case law and news Recent posts reception conditions recognition of judgments recreational rights Redfearn v UK referendum reform refugee applications refugee crisis refugee status refusal of treatment Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages registration regulatory rehabilitation of offenders Reith Lectures Re J (A Child: Disclosure) [2012] EWCA Civ 1204 relgious freedom Religion religion in the courts religious beliefs religious discrimination religious freedom religious prosecution remedies renewables subsidies rent repeal reporting restrictions representation reproductive rights reproductive technologies reproductive wrongs rescue rescuer's claim resettlement of offenders resource allocation respect for family life responsibility in tort restrictions on exports restrictions on liberty results 2010 resuscitation retrospective application of the Human Rights Act retrospective legislation retrospective penalty retrospectivity rev paul nicholson reynolds Reynolds defence Re [2012] EWCA Civ 1233 richard III Richard O'Dwyer right of appeal rightsifno RightsInfo rights of children Right to a fair hearing right to a fair trial right to a home right to a remedy right to artistic expression right to a student loan right to autonomy right to autonomy and privacy right to die right to dies right to die with dignity right to dignity right to education right to expression right to family life right to food right to free enjoyment of possessions right to information right to liberty right to life right to peaceful enjoyment of property Right to Privacy right to private and family life right to refuse treatment right to respect for private life right to silence right to strike right to swim right to truth right to vote Rihanna Rio Ferdinand riots ripa rise of fascism risk risk assessment rival supermarkets Roma Roman Catholic Roman Catholic Church roman catholic schools Romania Rooney's Gold roundup roundup ready Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust royal dutch petroleum royal name Royal Oper House Royal Prerogative rule of law Rupert Jackson Rusal Russia russia and human rights Russian Federal Security Service Rutherford Ryanair s sadie frost Safari same-sex same sex parents same sex partnerships same sex relationship sanctions set aside sanctity of life Sandiford Sapiens Sarah Ferguson sark satire saudi arabia Savage (Respondent) v South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust Saville Report schedule 7 schizophrenia school building school surveillance schrems science scientific atheism scientific research scientology Scoppola Scotland Scotland Act Scotland Act 1998 Scotland Bill Scottish Government Scottish Human Rights Commission scottish landlord and tenant Scottish Parliament SCOTUS sea fishing seals Seal v UK search engines search powers secondary legislation secondary smoking secrecy Secretary of State Secretary of State for the Home Department v AP secret courts secret criminal trial secret evidence secret justice Secret trials sectarianism secularism security security cameras security services security vetting Sedar Mohammed segregation Select Committee on AI self-defence self-incrimination seminar sentencing September 11 serco serious harm sermon Seroxat service outside jurisdiction set-off Sewel Convention sex abuse sex ban sex ban low IQ sex offender Sex offenders sex register sexual abuse Sexual Offences sexual orientation sexual orientation regulations SFO investigation sfo unlawfulness shaker aamer Shamima Begum sham marriage shared residence order Sharon Shoesmith shetland shipping shipwreck Shirley Chaplin shooting shoulder shrug should trees have rights SIAC sihkism Simon Singh sir alan ward Sir Nicholas Wall Sir Peter six months rule slander slaughterhouses slavery smacking small claims court small solar Smith Smith & Ors v The Ministry of Defence [2012] EWCA Civ 1365 smog smoking ban Snyder v Phelps social and economic rights social benefits social housing socialite social media social security law social welfare social workers Solicitorsfromhell website solitary confinement soma somali pirates sources South Africa south african constitution sovereignty Sovereignty clause soviet union soybean Spanish properties spare room subsidy special advocate special advocates species specific performance spending cuts spielmann squatters Standing standing rules starvation state immunity statelessness statute statutory power Statutory purpose stay of execution stem cell research stem cells stem cell therapy Stephen Gough stephen sedley stepping hill hospital Sterilisation steve macqueen Steven Neary stobart-law stop and search stop powers Stormont Assembly storms Strasborug Strasbourg Strasbourg Court strasbourg damages pirates strasbourg law Strasbourg terminology strategic environmental assessment strike strike out Strikes student loans sturgeon subsidies Sugar v BBC suicide suicide act 1961 super injunction super injunctions supermax prisons superstition Supreme Court Supreme Court Live Supreme Court of Canada Supreme Court Scotland surgery surrogacy surrogacy arrangement surveillance swine flu Syria systemic violence Take That tallinn tariff Taser Tax tax avoidance tax discrimination tchenguiz technology Telegraph telephone preference service television justice tenancy tent city termination termination of pregnancy terror asset freezing Terrorism terrorism act terrorism act 2000 terrorism legislation terrorism prosecution terrorist finance terrorist threat terry pratchett Tesla testamentary dispositions The Bike Project the Catholic church The Corner House theism The Law in These Parts therapy Theresa May the right to privacy The Stig The Sun third countries third party appeals three way case time limits time limits in human rights Tobacco tobacco cartels Top Gear tort Torture torture inquiry totally without merit TPIM TPP tracking trade trade secrets trades unions trade union congress Trade Unions transexual transsexual transsexuals travel travellers travel restrictions treason treatment treaty treaty accession trial by jury trolling TTIP TTM v London Borough of Hackney & Ors Tugendhat tumour Turkey tweeting in court Twitter twitter in court Twitter Joke Trial UK UK citizenship uk constitution UK election UK Human Rights Blog UK Human Rights Roundup UKIP UK Jewish Film Festival ukraine UK Supreme Court UK Uncut ultra orthodox jews ultra vires UN unable to vote unacceptable behaviour policy unaccompanied minors unborn child UN Convention on the Rights of the Child unelected judges unemployment unfair consultation unfair dismissal unfairness at hearing Unison Unite United Against Fascism Group United Kingdom United Nations United States United States v Windsor universal declaration of human rights universal jurisdiction Universal Periodic Review University University Fees university of east anglia University of Southampton unjust and oppressive unlawful arrest unlawful detention unpaid work schemes UN Resolution unsolicited calls UPR US aviation US Constitution use as of right US Supreme Court vaccination Valkyries variants veganism vehicle breakdown vetting and barring vicarious liability victim victim status Victoria Climbie victorian charter Vienna airport vigilantism villagisation vinton cerf violence violist visa scheme vivisection voluntary euthanasia Volunteers voter compensation voters compensation voting voting compensation vulnerable Wagner Wakefield Wales War war correspondents ward of court War Horse water utilities Watts Wayne Rooney Websites welfare of child welfare of children welfare of the child welfare state welsh bill western sahara whaling What would happen if the UK withdrew from the European Court of Human Rights whimbrel whisky Whistleblowing WHO who is JIH whole gene sequencing whole life orders whorship Wikileaked cable Wikileaks wiklleaks Wild Law wildlife Wildlife and Countryside Act will William Hague William Marbury wills wind farms wind turbine Winterbourne View witchcraft withdrawal of treatment women's rights Woolas worboys Workers working time directive wrongful birth wrongful conception wrongful life WTO wuhan X AND OTHERS v. AUSTRIA - 19010/07 - HEJUD [2013] ECHR 148 X Factor XX v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWCA Civ 742 X Y and Z v UK Yemshaw Yildirim v Turkey Your freedom website YouTube yukos Yuval Noah Hariri Zakir Naik Zanu-PF Zero Hours Contracts ZH (Tanzania) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Zimbabwe Zimbabwe farm invasions ZN (Afghanistan) (FC) and others ZZ [2015] CSIH 29 [2015] CSOH 168 £750


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