Search Results for: justice and security bill


“Thinking the unthinkable”? Freedom of information and the NHS Risk Register – Robin Hopkins

16 April 2012 by

Department of Health v IC, Healey and Cecil(EA/2011/0286 & EA/2011/0287) – Read Decision

In a recent post, Panopticon brought you, hot-off-the-press, the Tribunal’s decision in the much-publicised case involving publication, under Freedom of Information Law, of the NHS Risk Register. Somewhat less hot-off-the-press are my observations. This is a very important decision, both for its engagement with the legislative process and for its analysis of the public interest with respect to section 35(1)(a) of Freedom of Information Act 2000 (formulation or development of government policy) – particularly the “chilling effect” argument. At the outset, it is important to be clear about what was being requested and when.

Risk registers in general

The DOH prepared two “risk registers” documenting the risks associated with implementing the “far-reaching and highly controversial” NHS reforms under what was then the Health and Social Care Bill. The Tribunal heard that risk registers are used widely across government for project planning. They provide snapshots (rather than detailed discussions) combining the probability of and outcomes from any given risk associated with the proposed reform; risks are then classified in red, amber or green terms. According to Lord Gus O’Donnell, who gave evidence in support of the DOH’s case, risk registers are the most important tool used across government to formulate and develop policy for risk management in advising ministers. John Healey MP, one of the requesters in this case, said that he was a minister for ten years and was never shown such a register.


Continue reading →

The Weekly Roundup: Facial Recognition Technology (and Brexit)

10 September 2019 by

Image: UK Parliament/ Jess Taylor

In the news

As we inch towards October, the £100m government campaign to ‘Get Ready for Brexit’ has been launched. But to all intents and purposes, the government are jumping the gun. By the time businesses have managed to get themselves ready for Brexit (again), Boris Johnson will probably have been required to request an extension to Article 50 under the anti-no deal bill proposed by Hillary Benn, which today was given royal assent and passed into law.


Continue reading →

The Round Up: Grenfell, lost DVDs, and a Deputy Judge who erred in law.

21 May 2018 by

Conor Monighan brings us the latest updates in human rights law.

Grenfell

Credit: The Guardian

In the News:

An independent report into building regulations, commissioned by the government in the wake of the Grenfell disaster, has called for the current regulatory system to be overhauled.

However, the report surprised some because it did not recommend a ban on flammable cladding. It also declined to recommend stopping so-called ‘desktop studies’, where materials are tested without setting them on fire. The chairman of Grenfell United expressed disappointment at this conclusion. The Royal Institute of British Architects expressed support for banning inflammable cladding and the government has said it will consult on the issue. The Prime Minister has also pledged £400 million to remove flammable cladding from tower blocks.

The author of the report, Dame Judith Hackitt, said that banning the cladding was insufficient. Instead, she stated that a ‘whole system change’ is needed. Dame Hackitt warned that cost was being prioritised over safety and that ‘banning activities and particular materials […] will create a false sense of security’.

The report recommended fundamental changes to building regulations, saying that the process which drives compliance with the regulations are ‘weak and complex’. Dame Hackitt found that there was a ‘race to the bottom’ in the building industry that was putting people at risk. She also wrote that product testing must be made more transparent, and that residents’ voices were not being listened to.

The Grenfell Inquiry will open this week. For the first two weeks, the lives of those who died will be remembered in a series of commemorations.
Continue reading →

Sexual orientation removed from UN resolution condemning executions

24 November 2010 by

The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs Commitee of the United Nations has narrowly voted to remove sexual orientation from a draft resolution against extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions.

In light of the guarantee of the right to life, liberty and security of person in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the resolution condemns all extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and demands that all States take effective action to prevent, combat, investigate and eliminate such executions.

Continue reading →

Sale of arms to Saudi Arabia held to be based on flawed decision-making process

28 June 2019 by

London, UK. 11th July, 2016. Human rights campaigners protest against arms sales to Saudi Arabia outside the Defence and Security Organisation (DSO), the Government department responsible for arms export promotions.

In R (Campaign Against Arms Trade) v Secretary of State for International Trade [2019] EWCA Civ 1020, the Court of Appeal upheld a challenge to the lawfulness of the grant by the UK Government of export licences for the sale or transfer of arms or military equipment to Saudi Arabia for possible use in the conflict in Yemen.

The Court has overturned the decision of the Divisional Court, which was discussed on the Blog here.

The Campaign Against Arms Trade argued that there was a large body of evidence which demonstrates overwhelmingly that Saudi Arabia has committed repeated and serious breaches of international humanitarian law during the conflict in Yemen. CAAT claimed, in particular, that Saudi Arabia has committed indiscriminate or deliberate airstrikes against civilians, including airstrikes which have used “cluster” munitions, and which had targeted schools and medical facilities.

The Court of Appeal held that the decision-making process had been irrational, as it had not included an assessment as to whether there had been previous breaches of international humanitarian law in the past, without which there could not be a proper assessment of the risk of future breaches.


Continue reading →

Is the planet our neighbour, in law?

7 January 2011 by

It must be something in the air. On the day the “Ratcliffe 20” were spared imprisonment for their planned attack on a power station, the Guardian published environmental lawyer Polly Higgins’ call for a new crime of ecocide and the fringe movement Campaign for Real Farming – rival to the mainstream Oxford Farming Conference – were sewing the seeds for resistance to ecologically damaging agricultural laws and practices.

The widespread perception is that the law and its custodians can no longer be trusted to safeguard the environment, or, to put it in the language of rights, that the protection that flows from current forms of rights entitlement is not only insufficient for, but positively damaging to the interests of the natural world.

Continue reading →

Have we lost sight of J.S. Mill’s concept of the right to liberty? Article 5 in the Court of Protection

21 November 2014 by

Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council v KW (by her litigation friend Celia Walsh)   [2014] EWCOP 45 – read judgment

JohnStuartMillMostyn J has pulled no punches in rejecting an application for a declaration that an incapacitated person, being looked after in her own home, has been deprived of her liberty contrary to Article 5. There is a very full account of the judgment on the Mental Capacity Law and Policy blog so I will keep this summary short.

The first respondent, KW, is a 52 year old woman who is severely mentally incapacitated. She suffered brain damage while undergoing surgery to correct arteriovenous malformation in 1996. This resulted in a subarachnoid haemorrhage and long term brain damage. She was left with cognitive and mental health problems, epilepsy and physical disability. She was discharged from hospital into a rehabilitation unit and thence to her own home, a bungalow in Middleton, with 24/7 support. Physically, KW is just about ambulant with the use of a wheeled Zimmer frame. Mentally, she is trapped in the past. She believes it is 1996 and that she is living at her old home with her three small children (who are now all adult). As Mostyn J says,

Her delusions are very powerful and she has a tendency to try to wander off in order to find her small children. Her present home is held under a tenancy from a Housing Association. The arrangement entails the presence of carers 24/7 [who] attend to her every need in an effort to make her life as normal as possible. If she tries to wander off she will be brought back.

Continue reading →

Extradition review backs status quo, leaves some completely baffled

19 October 2011 by

A review of the UK’s extradition laws by a former Court of Appeal judge has found that existing arrangements between the UK and USA are balanced but the Home Secretary’s discretion to intervene in human rights cases should be removed.

The review by Sir Scott Baker was commissioned shortly after the Coalition Government came to power, fulfilling the pledge in its programme for government to ”review the operation of the Extradition Act – and the US/UK extradition treaty – to make sure it is even-handed”. In my September 2010 post I said that the review marked a victory for campaigners against certain extradition agreements, most notably the supporters of alleged Pentagon hacker Gary McKinnon (pictured).

Continue reading →

Climate Camp protesters did not threaten breach of the peace, says High Court

22 April 2011 by

R (Moos and Anor) v The Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis [2011] EWHC 957 (Admin) – Read Judgment

The High Court has decided that the actions of police in “kettling” climate change protestors during the G20 summit were unlawful.

In the aftermath of the global credit crunch, the second G20 Summit, which was to commence on 2 April 2009, was an obvious target of public frustration and anger in respect of a range of economic and social issues. Thus on 1 April, two large demonstrations took place in the City of London. One was staged near the Bank of England, directed primarily at the (mis)management of the world’s financial markets by banks such as the Royal Bank of Scotland. The other was set up as a “Climate Camp” outside the Carbon Exchange Building in Bishopsgate, and was directed at environmental concerns.
Continue reading →

Let the deportation fit the crime

6 February 2012 by

Gurung v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] EWCA Civ 62 (02 February 2012) – read judgment

In a short but fascinating judgment which lays bare the foundation stones of judicial review, the Court of Appeal has articulated the principles to be applied when considering whether automatic deportation of a foreign criminal was “proportionate” for the purposes of Article 8 of the Convention.

This was an appeal by the secretary of state against a decision of the Upper Tribunal (UT) that the deportation of the respondent (G) would interfere with his family life. The respondent had arrived in the United Kingdom in 2005 to join his father who had been granted indefinite leave to remain in the United Kingdom at the end of his service with the Gurkhas. Shortly afterwards G was involved in a group attack on a man, which led to the unconscious victim being thrown into the Thames and drowned. G was subsequently tried and convicted of manslaughter, which meant that he was subject to automatic deportation under the UK Borders Act 2007.  However, the Upper Tribunal found that automatic deportation would be a disproportionate interference with his right to family life in the UK.
Continue reading →

Joint Committee on Human Rights calls for control order scheme to be discontinued

31 March 2010 by

The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights (‘the Joint Committee’) has released its report on the Annual Renewal of Control Order Legislation 2010, in which it heavily criticised the control order scheme. The scheme, introduced in 2005, allows courts to put terror suspects under restrictions resembling house arrest by placing them under curfews of up to 16 hours a day and, typically, constraints on their movements and communications. There were 12 suspects subject to control orders in December 2009.

Whereas the Joint Committee has previously criticised the scheme, this is the first time that it has recommended for it to be discontinued. The committee said:

We have serious concerns about the control order system. Evidence shows the devastating impact of control orders on the subject of the orders, their families and their communities. In addition detailed information is now available about the cost of control orders which raises questions about whether the cost the system is out of all proportion to the supposed public benefit. We find it hard to believe that the annual cost of surveillance of the small number of individuals subject to control orders would exceed the amount currently being paid to lawyers in the ongoing litigation about control orders. Finally, we believe that because the Government has ignored our previous recommendations for reform, the system gives rise to unnecessary breaches of individuals’ rights to liberty and due process.

Continue reading →

About

3 December 2009 by

The UK Human Rights Blog aims to provide a free, comprehensive and balanced legal update service. Our intention is not to campaign on any particular issue, but rather to present both sides of the argument on issues which are often highly controversial. We post on a huge range of legal issues, from human rights, to public, medical and environmental law.

Darragh Coffey and Jasper Gold are the Blog’s Co-commissioning Editors, and lead an Editorial Team comprising Rosalind EnglishAngus McCullough QCDavid Hart QC, Martin Downs, Jim Duffy and Jonathan Metzer

The Blog is written by members of 1 Crown Office Row. Its searchable archive of case reports and comments dating back to 1998 (when the acclaimed Human Rights Update service  was launched) is freely available. The Blog also delivers a weekly Rights Round-up, written by our talented team of recent law graduates. We welcome posts from legal academics as well as practising lawyers.

In May 2017 the podcast series Law Pod UK was introduced alongside the Blog, featuring lively interviews with members of Chambers on caselaw and general legal developments.

Adam Wagner founded the Blog in 2010. The Blog has had over 6 million hits and averages well over 500,000 hits a year. The blog also has thousands of subscribers across email, Facebook and Twitter. It is regularly acclaimed by commentators and cited by leading lights in the legal community.

If you like the Blog, please do subscribe to our regular email updates. Law Pod UK episodes are freely available for download from Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Audioboom and many more platforms.

We would welcome your comments.

Editorial team

Darragh Coffey

1 Crown Office Row
Darragh Coffey

Darragh Coffey accepts instructions in all areas of Chambers’ work and is developing a broad practice with a particular focus on public law. He appears in courts and tribunals on behalf of both Claimants and Defendants in a range of civil hearings.

Twitter: @darraghcoffey

Full C.V.


Jasper Gold

1 Crown Office Row
Jasper-Gold-121021

Jasper is developing a broad practice and accepts instructions in all chambers’ practice areas. As well as clinical negligence, public law, discrimination, data law, inquests and tax, Jasper gained experience as a pupil in commercial disputes and is comfortable with cases containing contractual or other commercial elements.

Since joining 1COR, Jasper has undertaken advocacy in the high court, county court and coronial court. He has appeared in several inquests, including ‘Article 2’ and jury inquests. He is currently instructed as junior counsel to the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in the Undercover Policing Inquiry, and is the Co-Commissioning Editor of the UK Human Rights Blog.

Twitter: @JasperSGold

Full C.V.


Rosalind English

1 Crown Office Row
Rosalind

Rosalind is a former academic who now edits the Human Rights Blog  and undertakes comparative and public law research for members of chambers. She also records and presents Chambers’ new podcast series on legal developments, Law Pod UK.

Twitter: @rosalindenglish

Full C.V.


Angus McCullough QC

1 Crown Office Row

Angus McCullough has a varied practice which covers public law (including human rights), professional negligence, regulatory and disciplinary law, and the environment. He has acted as a special advocate in many of the most high profile national security cases in recent times (e.g. Abu Qatada, Ekaterina Zatuliveter, Al Jedda). Instructed by the Attorney General, he has appeared in contempt of court applications against the press and jurors (including the ‘Facebook juror‘ and the first internet press contempt case to be brought). He is also a recognised expert in medical law: complex and high value medical claims constitute a major part of his practice and in 2009, the year before taking silk, he was named ‘Personal Injury and Clinical Negligence Junior of the Year by Chambers & Partners. Before becoming a QC in 2010 he was on the panel of Treasury Counsel (A list from 2001-2010).

Twitter: @amccqc

Full C.V.


Martin Downs

1 Crown Office Row
admin-ajax

Martin Downs practises in the field of equality and human rights. He has co-authored two books about Civil Partnership and Same-Sex Marriage and is a regular contributor to Family Law and Tolley’s Employment Law. He lectures on employment, equality, education and family law amongst other subjects and has made a number of media appearances – particularly about radicalisation.
He is very interested in the history, culture and politics of South Asia as well as Ireland. He tweets on legal matters too.

Twitter: @MartinJDowns

Full CV.


David Hart QC

1 Crown Office Row
David Hart QC 2018

David Hart practises in environmental law, medical law (particularly clinical negligence), professional negligence and construction. He has also appeared at a number of major public inquiries. David has particular experience of group actions in the environmental field and in medical cases.

He has been Chair of the Environmental Law Foundation since 2016, and has done pro bono work for them. He sat on a Research Ethics Committee at St Thomas’ Hospital for 10 years, and he has a particular interest in genetics. He is an accredited mediator. He has been a regular contributor to the Blog for the last 5 years, on all subjects under the sun.

Twitter: @hart_david

Full CV.


Jim Duffy

1 Crown Office Row

Jim was the Blog’s Commissioning Editor in 2017. His practice spans human rights, inquests, clinical negligence and employment law. Before transferring to the Bar in 2012, Jim was a solicitor whose work involved human rights cases on behalf of Iraqi civilians, British soldiers, jobseekers and immigrants.

After becoming a tenant at 1 Crown Office Row, he acted as Judicial Assistant to Lord Reed and Lord Hodge at the UK Supreme Court in 2013-14.

Twitter: @JimDuffy12

Full C.V.


Jonathan Metzer

1 Crown Office Row

Jonathan joined chambers as a tenant in September 2017 after completion of 12 months of pupillage. He is developing a broad practice across all areas of Chambers’ work, including public law, immigration, clinical negligence, inquests and public inquiries. He accepts instructions on a pro bono basis.

Before coming to the Bar, Jonathan undertook voluntary work at The Death Penalty Project, Simons, Muirhead & Burton LLP. He also worked on a pro bono basis for the School Exclusion Project, acting as lay legal representative for the parents of excluded pupils at hearings in front of school governors and independent review panels.

Twitter: @JonathanMetzer 

Full C.V.


Founding Editor:  Adam Wagner

Adam-Wagner

Adam was the founding editor of the UK Human Rights Blog. He was longlisted for the 2011 Orwell Prize for blogging. He is a tenant at Doughty Street, specialising in public law, human rights and medical law.  In 2015 he set up RightsInfo, an innovative new website that aims to bring human rights to life using infographics, stories and social media.

Twitter: @adamwagner1

About 1 Crown Office Row


1COR is a leading set of civil law Chambers. We are recognised as having leading practitioners in all aspects of healthcare law, clinical negligence and personal injury, professional disciplinary proceedings, public and administrative law, human rights, employment, professional negligence, costs, matrimonial finance, VAT and environmental law. We also have a team of 15 accredited mediators. You can read more about 1COR by clicking here.

Comments Policy

i) You grant us a perpetual license to reproduce your words in your comment and a name/web site link in attribution.

ii) You acknowledge that a name, email address and IP address will be recorded and held by us on submission of your comment for so long as your comment remains on the site.

iii) The email address and IP address will not be used by us for any purpose save those directly connected with the administration of the site and/or your comment(s). The email address and IP address will not be released or passed to third parties unless we are required to so so by law.

iv) We reserve the right to delete or edit comments without notice.
The following is a non-exhaustive list of circumstances in which we will delete or edit comments:

  • the comment is actually or potentially defamatory against an identifiable person.
  • the comment constitutes advertising.
  • the comment contains abuse directed at authors of the site, or other commenters, or an identifiable person.
  • the comment is wholly irrelevant to the post under which it is made.
  • the comment is, in the opinion of the editor, spam.
  • the comment contains a link to a commercial website which is in our opinion not appropriate or merited.

The decision to edit or delete a comment is final.

v) We cannot offer advice on individual’s situations and cannot allow others to respond to comments containing individuals’ legal problems or situations. Comments by individuals seeking advice or assistance will be deleted without notice.

vi) You acknowledge that you are the author of your comment and that the editor and other authors of the site take no responsibility for your comment. You are responsible for any inaccuracies, errors, omissions, and statements in your comment.

vii) You agree that, if your comment or comments contain or allegedly contain defamatory phrases, you indemnify the editor and/or any authorised author of this site in respect of any and all costs and/or losses and/or damages incurred by them in respect of that comment or comments.

viii) The editor of the site reserves the right to ban any commentor from posting further comments on what, in the opinion of the editor, is a breach of these conditions.

Israeli Arab activist detention was (mostly) lawful

2 October 2011 by

Mahajna v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2011] EWHC 2481 (Admin) (30 September 2011). Read judgment.

 

1 Crown Office Row’s Neil Sheldon appeared for the Secretary of State in this case. He is not the writer of this post.

The High Court has ruled that detention of a Palestinian activist, whilst he was challenging the decision to deport him on public policy grounds, was lawful in principle. However, the failure to explain to Raed Salah Mahajna the reasons for his detention in a language he could understand rendered the first 35 hours of detention unlawful.

The treatment of foreign nationals pending deportation has provoked a good deal of controversy, as reported recently. These cases are primarily ones where deportation is considered to be conducive to the public good because of serious criminal offences committed by the individual. In this case however, no crime was committed, but a history of activism perceived as anti-semitic preaching was considered a threat to security in the UK.

Continue reading →

The paradox beneath Strasbourg’s French veil ban decision

16 July 2014 by

french-veil-ban-001S.A.S v France (Application no. 43835/11) – read judgment

The Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights has rejected a challenge to a French law which prohibits the wearing of veils in public. The ruling is, of course, of great political and media interest, but it is also significant from a legal perspective. In a lengthy and detailed judgment, the Court ultimately accepts that, as a matter of principle, a government can legitimately interfere with the rights of individuals in pursuit of social and cultural cohesion.

On 11th April 2011, Law no. 2010-1192 came into force in the French Republic. Subject to certain limited exceptions, the law prohibits anyone from wearing any clothing which conceals their face when in public places, on pain of a 150 euro fine, and/or compulsory citizenship classes. Whilst phrased in general terms, the most obvious effect of the law, and its clear intention, is to ban the niqab (a veil that leaves only the eyes visible) and the burka (a loose garment covering the entire body with a mesh screen over the face).

Continue reading →

EU border transit zones and deprivation of liberty: Ilias v Hungary

19 March 2020 by

Amid recent news reports of Turkey’s re-opening of migration routes to Europe, clashes at the Turkey-Greece border, and EU countries closing their borders due to Covid-19, this post looks back to a decision from the ECtHR Grand Chamber last November and the applicability of Article 5 ECHR in temporary border transit zones. 

Ilias v Hungary (Application no. 47287/15) was the first case in which the ECtHR considered a land border transit zone between two member states of the Council of Europe, where the host state, Hungary, was also a member of the EU and had applied the safe third country rule under the EU asylum regime. The Grand Chamber held that the applicants’ detention did not breach Article 5 (the right to liberty and security of the person).

Image credit: The Guardian

The applicants, Mr Ilias and Mr Ahmed, were both Bangladeshi nationals who had left Bangladesh at different times and in differing circumstances. They met in Greece and then traveled together to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, then to Serbia, and then to Hungary. On 15 September 2015 they arrived in Hungary and entered the border transit zone at Röszke. They submitted asylum requests on the same day. Within several hours their requests were rejected as being inadmissible and they were ordered to be expelled from Hungary back to Serbia as a safe third country. The applicants then spent 23 days in the transit zone whilst they appealed this decision. On 8 October 2015, following a final decision of the Hungarian courts which rejected their applications for asylum and ordered the applicants’ expulsion, Mr Ilias and Mr Ahmed were escorted out of the transit zone and crossed the border back into Serbia.


Continue reading →

Welcome to the UKHRB


This blog is run by 1 Crown Office Row barristers' chambers. Subscribe for free updates here. The blog's editorial team is:
Commissioning Editor: Jonathan Metzer
Editorial Team: Rosalind English
Angus McCullough QC David Hart QC
Martin Downs
Jim Duffy

Free email updates


Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog for free and receive weekly notifications of new posts by email.

Subscribe

Categories


Disclaimer


This blog is maintained for information purposes only. It is not intended to be a source of legal advice and must not be relied upon as such. Blog posts reflect the views and opinions of their individual authors, not of chambers as a whole.

Our privacy policy can be found on our ‘subscribe’ page or by clicking here.

Tags


Aarhus Abortion Abu Qatada Abuse Access to justice adoption ALBA Al Qaeda animal rights anonymity Article 1 Protocol 1 Article 2 article 3 Article 4 article 5 Article 6 Article 8 Article 9 article 10 Article 11 article 13 Article 14 Artificial Intelligence Asbestos assisted suicide asylum Australia autism benefits Bill of Rights biotechnology blogging Bloody Sunday brexit Bribery Catholicism Chagos Islanders Children children's rights China christianity citizenship civil liberties campaigners climate change clinical negligence Coercion common law confidentiality consent conservation constitution contempt of court Control orders Copyright coronavirus Coroners costs Court of Protection crime Cybersecurity Damages data protection death penalty defamation deportation deprivation of liberty Detention disability disclosure Discrimination disease divorce DNA domestic violence duty of care ECHR ECtHR Education election Employment Environment Equality Act Ethiopia EU EU Charter of Fundamental Rights EU costs EU law European Court of Justice evidence extradition extraordinary rendition Family Fertility FGM Finance foreign criminals foreign office France freedom of assembly Freedom of Expression freedom of information freedom of speech Gay marriage Gaza genetics Germany Google Grenfell Health HIV home office Housing HRLA human rights Human Rights Act human rights news Huntington's Disease immigration India Indonesia injunction Inquests international law internet Inuit Iran Iraq Ireland Islam Israel Italy IVF Japan Judaism judicial review jury trial JUSTICE Justice and Security Bill Law Pod UK legal aid Leveson Inquiry LGBTQ Rights liability Libel Liberty Libya Lithuania local authorities marriage mental capacity Mental Health military Ministry of Justice modern slavery music Muslim nationality national security NHS Northern Ireland nuclear challenges Obituary ouster clauses parental rights parliamentary expenses scandal patents Pensions Personal Injury Piracy Plagiarism planning Poland Police Politics pollution press Prisoners Prisons privacy Professional Discipline Property proportionality Protection of Freedoms Bill Protest Public/Private public access public authorities public inquiries rehabilitation Reith Lectures Religion RightsInfo right to die right to family life Right to Privacy right to swim riots Roma Romania Round Up Royals Russia Saudi Arabia Scotland secrecy secret justice sexual offence Sikhism Smoking social media South Africa Spain special advocates Sports Standing statelessness stop and search Strasbourg Supreme Court Supreme Court of Canada surrogacy surveillance Syria Tax technology Terrorism tort Torture travel treaty TTIP Turkey UK Ukraine USA US Supreme Court vicarious liability Wales War Crimes Wars Welfare Western Sahara Whistleblowing Wikileaks wind farms WomenInLaw YearInReview Zimbabwe
%d bloggers like this: